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Full text of "Essentials of New Testament Greek"

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Form No 513. 
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ESSENTIALS 



NEW TESTAMENT GREEK 



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ESSENTIALS - A7 



NEW TESTAMENT GREEK 



BY 

JOHN HOMER HUDDH.STON, A.B. (Harv.), 
Ph.D. (Munich) 

Professor of Greek in the University of Maine 

Author of " Greek Tragedy in the Light of Vase-Paintings," " Lessons 
from Greek Pottery" etc. 



THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 

LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., Ltd. 
1905 

All rii'hts reser-ned 



Copyright, 1895, 
By MACMILLAN AND CO. 



Set up and electrotyped August, 1895. Reprinted August, 
1896; October, 1897 (with corrections); August, 1900 ; October, 
1902 ; January, December, 1905. 



PREFACE. 



The publication of the Revised Version of our 
English New Testament, in 1881, marked the begin- 
ning of a new interest in Bible study. Since that time 
not only the English, but the Greek and Hebrew have 
been studied with a zeal quite new. The sources are 
being more carefully examined to-day than ever before. 
Students are becoming more and more awake to the 
great importance of being able to judge of a certain 
passage for themselves rather than accepting without 
doubt or question whatever the authorities say in 
regard to it. 

Can anything be done to bring the language of the 
New Testament within the reach of a larger number 
of Bible students? Through the great maze of gram- 
matical difficulties that surround the language, can a 
way be mapped out along which the student may work, 
and, without sacrificing essentials, gain the same end 
that usually requires many months of hard study? 
Can the absolutely essential parts of the language, as 
used by the New Testament writers, be set forth in 
small space? This little book is an attempt to answer 
these questions, and I believe that it lies within the 



VI PREFACE. 

power of the earnest Sunday-school worker or other 
Bible student to acquire a reading knowledge of New 
Testament Greek, provided only a substantial part of 
one's time is thus devoted for a few months. 

In my teaching of elementary classes in Garrett 
Biblical Institute, I have been accustomed to begin my 
work with the firs*" list of verbs in Bradley and Hors- 
well's New Testament Word Lists, Part I. All of these 
words occur several hundred times, and furnish the 
student thus at the very first with a substantial hold 
on what proves one of the main difficulties in Greek 
or any other language, — the vocabulary. The work 
was in part inductive. Those words that presented 
fewest difficulties of form, and which at the same time 
were of the most frequent occurrence, were presented 
first. The second declension was introduced before 
the first, as being altogether simpler and more easily 
comprehended by those who had not made the 
acquaintance of an inflected language. I aimed to 
keep rare adjectives and tenses of the verb till a later 
time. The optative mood, which does not occur in 
the Johannean writings, was omitted entirely from the 
elementary work. Each lesson was accompanied with 
illustrative exercises taken as far as possible from the 
New Testament. 

The present volume has grown out of this plan of 
work. It represents the results of class-room experi- 
ence. The work has been tried in manuscript form, 
both with my classes and with private students, and 
has, therefore, the advantage, so important in this 
class of books, of having been given a practical test. 



PREFACE. Vll 

Part I. includes the thirty- two lessons, which will afford 
sufficient preparation for the reading of the Greek, 
the first letter of John, the Beatitudes and the Lord's 
Prayer from Matthew, the chapter on the Prodigal 
Son from Luke, and the thirteenth of First Corinthians. 
These selections are given in Wescott and Hort's read- 
ing and are followed by notes and vocabulary. Of the 
epistle there is given a translation of three chapters, 
two literal and one quoted from the Revised Version. 
This translation may serve for retranslation in case 
the reading is taken up inductively apart from the 
lessons. In Part IL are found the essentials of the 
grammar, embracing, in the first part, the alphabet, 
table of consonants, vowel and euphonic changes, 
in the second part, the declension of nouns, pronouns, 
adjectives, participles, the conjugation of verbs, the 
optatives of the New Testament, a table of about eighty 
irregular verbs, and the special study in the classes of 
verbs and the most common irregular verbs. 

In all verbal forms the aim has been to confine the 
forms given, to New Testamertt usage. In the third 
part of the grammar the main features of the syntax 
are illustrated with quotations from the New Testa- 
ment Greek. The prepositions also are discussed 
somewhat and accompanied with sentences illustrating 
New Testament peculiarities. 

Γ have made the explanations in the lessons so full 
that much progress may be made by private study, 
without a teacher. The lessons as arranged represent 
but one way of applying the Word Lists. The Greek 
text, the convenient form of declensions and conjuga- 



Vlll PREFACE. 

tions, afford opportunity for the teacher to exercise 
his own judgment in putting the student in control of 
the elementary work. 

I wish here to acknowledge my great indebtedness 
to Professors Bradley and Horswell for the use of their 
Word Lists, which they so very kindly put at my dis- 
posal. Without the great labour which they had already 
performed, my work would have been either impossible 
or the labour of producing it would have been very 
greatly increased. 

I wish especially to express my great indebtedness 
to Rev. Charles Horswell, Ph.D., Professor of Hebrew 
in Garrett Biblical Institute, for invaluable assistance. 
Without his suggestion the work would not have been 
begun, nor completed without his encouragement and 
co-operation. Whatever of merit this little book may 
have, it owes much to his rare scholarship and his wide 
experience as a teacher of the New Testament lan- 
guage. For no errors, however, which the work may 
contain is he at all responsible. For valuable assist- 
ance in correction of the prpof I have to express my 
thanks to Mr. E. A. Bechtel, A.M., and Mr. W. W. 
Bishop, A.M., Instructors in Classics in Northwestern 
University. The proof has been read, in part, also, 
by Professor Milton S. Terry, D.D., Garrett Biblical 
Institute, and by Professor Henry A. Buttz, D.D., 
Drew Theological Seminary. I owe much to the 
valuable suggestions of these well-known scholars. 

J. H. HUDDILSTON. 

Northwestern University, 

EvANSTON, III., May 29, 1895. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



Aside from the corrections of typographical errors, 
few changes have been introduced in this new edi- 
tion. My time since the publication of the book has 
been so occupied in other lines of study that it has 
been impossible for me to enlarge certain parts of 
the grammar which the favourable reception of the 
work would have warranted. 

I am under special obligation to Professor John 

Humphrey Barbour, Middletown, Conn., who has 

very kindly gone over the whole work and favoured 

me with his valuable criticism. 

J. H. H. 

Berlin, Germany, 
August, 1896. 



CONTENTS. 

— ♦ — 

PAGES 

Introduction xi-xxiv 

Bibliography xxiv-xxvi 

Suggestions to the Student ' xxvii 

PART I. — LESSONS; TEXT. 

Lessons I.-XXXII 1-90 

Selections for Translation 91-110 

Table of Abbreviations 11 1 

Notes on Selections 112-120 

Translations of First Epistle of John , , . , 121-126 
Vocabulary of Selections 127-133 

PART IL — GRAMMAR. 

1. Writing and Sound : Alphabet, Vowel Changes, 

Accent, Etc 137-142 

2. Accidence: Declension of Nouns, Adjectives, 

Pronouns, Participles; Conjugation of Verbs; 
Optatives of the New Testament; Irregular 
Verbs 142-203 

3. Syntax 203-222 

INDEXES 223-233 



INTRODUCTION. 



My purpose is to offer here a few considerations 
on two questions. i. Why was the New Testament 
written in Greek? 2. What are the main points of 
difference between this Greek and that of the classical 
period ? 

Every one knows that Greek was not a native of 
Palestine, but that in some way this exotic plant found 
root there, and, to the exclusion of the native language, 
became the organ of the everlasting Gospel. How 
then did this occur ? 

It will first be necessary to understand something 
about the languages which were used in the countries 
to the east from the Mediterranean, prior to and con- 
temporary with the advent of the Greek. All of this 
part of Asia, including the countries from Assyria on 
the north to Arabia on the south, had one separate and 
distinct family or branch of languages, — the Semitic. 
Of this primitive Semitic nothing is left us. Long 
before the curtain of history rises, the early language 
had assumed marked grammatical and lexigraphical 
peculiarities among the various peoples. Accordingly 
we know nothing of the parent speech except through 



Xll INTRODUCTION. 

the tongues of these early nations. The Assyrians 
(whose language is known from cuneiform inscrip- 
tions) and the Aramaeans, who comprised a large 
part of the population of Assyria and Babylon and 
to whose language, the Aramaic, we shall refer later, 
represented the most northern group of the Semitic. 
South of these we find the Hebrews of Canaan, in 
whose language the most considerable portion of the 
Old Testament was written, and akin to them the Phoe- 
nicians, whose language is known to us imperfectly and 
through inscriptions only. Further south the Arabic 
and Ethiopic make up what is sometimes termed the 
South Semitic. Of these three groups, the North, the 
Middle, and the South Semitic, we shall confine our 
considerations to the first two ; for here it is that we 
have to look for the language of the Jews. Their 
Hebrew was early exposed to the dialects of the sur- 
rounding tribes and especially open to Aramaic influ- 
ences on the north. Indeed as early as 700 B.C. 
we read that the messengers of the king Hezekiah 
requested the ambassador of the king of Assyria to 
speak to them in Aramaic, "for we understand //" 
(ii. Kings 18 :26). The Jews would not long retain 
their language in its early purity beside that of another 
people who, as a conquering nation, were continually 
insinuating themselves into their hfe and politics. The 
result was that long before the breaking up of the 
Jewish kingdom in 586 B.C., the Hebrew had departed 
considerably from its original integrity. During the 
long years of captivity in Babylon and throughout the 
Babylonian empire, the Aramaic, which was the official 



INTRODUCTION. Xlil 

language of the Babylonian court, must have become 
quite as much a part of the Hebrews as their native 
tongue. The books of the Old Testament written after 
the exile, Ezra and Daniel, are known as the Aramaic 
books, owing to the fact that considerable portions of 
them are in the Aramaic. We must not understand, 
however, that this large admixture of Aramaic is due 
wholly to the years of exile in Babylon. It has been 
the accepted view since the time of Jerome that in 
this period the Israelites ceased to speak and write 
Hebrew and turned to the use of the Aramaic only. 
Hence the term Chaldee, so often used to signify the 
speech of the Jews, as though the language of the 
Chaldees — the Aramaic — was introduced into Pales- 
tine by the returned exiles, and that subsequent to this 
the Hebrew died out and the Chaldee or Aramaic took 
its place. In recent years scholars have generally 
parted with this view, and have attempted to show that 
the change was more gradual. This seems by all 
means the most probable. A people retains its lan- 
guage long after its institutions and customs have 
ceased to exist. A conquering nation rarely succeeds 
in supplanting the language of the conquered. Slowly 
and gradually do the forces work that bring in the ele- 
ments of a new speech. The English, for example, 
has not after five centuries entirely displaced the 
Celtic of Ireland, nor has Welsh ceased to be a very 
important factor in the literature and life of the United 
Kingdom, notwithstanding the fact that more than 
500 years have passed since Edward built his castles 
on the Welsh frontier. 



XIV INTRODUCTION. 

We must conclude therefore that for centuries the 
Aramaic gradually gained in popularity over the 
Hebrew, until the latter became at last the language 
of scholars and the learned few, while to the great 
mass of Jews the Aramaic was the only language known. 
This change must have occurred before the time of 
Christ ; for we find then that the common people no 
longer understood the Hebrew of the Scriptures, but 
used instead versions known as Targums, written in 
Aramaic. This then is the language of Palestine at 
ihe time of Christ, and the same which in the New 
Testament is called Hebrew. 

A great distinction, however, must be made between 
this Jewish-Aramaic and the Hebrew. The literature 
of each is sacred, but of the Hebrew we have left us 
the scant remains of the Old Testament only, while 
the former has extant a vast literature of the Talmud, 
Targums, and interpretative works, and has lived on in 
a more or less changed condition till the present time, 
and forms the basis of the language much used by the 
Jews to-day throughout the world. 

At the close of the fourth century B.C., Alexander of 
Macedon crossed the historic Hellespont, overturned 
the Persian empire at Arbela, destroyed the famou§ 
city of ancient Tyre, overran all western Asia, even 
crossing into Egypt, where he founded the world's new 
metropolis bearing his own name (332 B.C.). It is 
hard to measure the results of this conquering of the 
world. By no means the least important of the many 
that might be described was the spread of Greek 
letters and Greek civilization. This noble language 



INTRODUCTION. XV 

of ancient Hellas, so rich and beautiful, so full of 
power and sweetness, was destined to work far greater 
results in the minds and hearts of men than the brief 
rule of Alexander and his successors. They soon 
passed away, and the Greek kingdom in Asia ceased 
to exist ; but the Greek language which came with 
them still remained and spread with great rapidity 
throughout this whole territory, revealing to these 
Semitic races a new world of beauty and power. 
Although Greece soon fell under the conquering hand 
of Rome, Greek art and Greek letters took captive 
her captor. Rome was then the world, while through 
all iier borders the language of Greece became the 
speech of trade and intercourse. Greek was even the 
language of the Roman court, and Roman boys were 
taught their Homer along with their native Vergil. 
The wide use of Greek at that period can be best 
compared with the English of to-day. It may be said 
with little hesitancy that, at the time of Christ, Greek 
was known in all parts of the Roman world. What 
more fitting language than this in which to send forth 
the Gospel of peace ? 

In Palestine there was of course a Greek population 
which existed alongside of the Jewish, and which 
became more numerous and distinct with the spread 
of Roman civilization. Of these two languages, Greek 
and Aramaic, we must suppose that a considerable 
part of the population knew enough for conversation 
at least. It is necessary to turn only to Alsace-Lorraine 
with its French and German, or to Wales with its Welsh 
and English, to find in modern times such a fusion of 



XVI INTRODUCTION. 

two tongues as must have existed in Palestine at the 
beginning of our era. 

The question as to whether Christ and his disciples 
knew and spoke Greek has been one that has long 
been debated. Some of the most illustrious of modern 
critics have been found on either side. It is not for 
me to enter upon it here, but simply to state my belief. 
It is more than probable, from what has been stated 
in regard to the two languages of Palestine at this 
period, that Greek, as well as Aramaic, must have fallen 
upon the ears of our Lord and his first followers from 
their earliest boyhood, and that all of them grew up 
in continual association with two languages. A few 
examples of this native speech are left us ; Mark 5:41 
and Mark 7 : 34 may be referred to. Instances when 
we may conclude that Greek was used by Christ are, 
Mark 7:26, 27, and John 12:23. Matthew, from 
his duty as a tax-collector, would have required both 
languages, while Luke, the most cultured of the evange- 
lists, exhibits marked power in his use of Greek. There 
was but one way of reaching " all nations " and send- 
ing to them the new message. There never could have, 
been any doubt in the mind of Luke, Mark, or John 
regarding the language they should employ in writing 
their histories of our Lord's life and works. Matthew 
appears to have written first in the Aramaic, but no 
doubt followed this immediately with a Greek version. 
A parallel to this may be observed in the case of 
the historian Josephus (a.d. 38-103), who wrote his 
history of the Jews first in Hebrew (Aramaic), and 
afterwards in Greek. It is not necessary to note 



INTRODUCTION. XVU 

concerning Paul that " all who are at Rome " and the 
" church at Corinth " and " the churches throughout 
Asia " could have been addressed in no language but 
the Greek, 

A considerable portion of the population at Alex- 
andria was Jews, for whom the Greek had displaced 
their native Aramaic, and as early as 275 B.C. they 
had so far forgotten the tongue of their fathers that 
they required a Greek translation of the Old Testa- 
ment. This was made at Alexandria by Jewish-Greeks, 
and is known as the Septuagint or the translation of 
the LXX. For the Jews scattered throughout the 
world in Cappadocia, Cyprus, Phrygia, Rhodes, Greece, 
and Rome the Septuagint became the Bible. So 
general was its use even in Palestine that the evange- 
lists quote quite as frequently from the Greek version 
as from the Hebrew. Paul, himself a Hebrew and 
reared according to the strictest sect of the Pharisees, 
often agrees more nearly with the Septuagint when he 
quotes from the Old Testament. 

After the fall of Jerusalem the Jewish population of 
Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, and other seaport towns, 
rapidly increased. Then, as now, the Jews were a 
commercial people ; Greek was the one language of 
commercial intercourse. Thus we see this wonderful 
language served as a common bond to hold together 
Jew and Gentile, Greek and Roman. Then it was 
that men were for the first time united by one speech 
and made, so to speak, into one family. With the 
overturning of old, worn-out kingdoms, and the break- 
ing down of ancient myth and fable of the pagan world, 



XVUl INTRODUCTION. 

a new soil was prepared ready for new seed, — the 
Gospel of love. 

Secondly, we come to consider the characteristics of 
the Greek of the New Testament. Does it differ very 
widely from classical Greek? To this the answer is 
"yes," and we may well rejoice that it does. Had 
the language as used by Plato and Demosthenes become 
the organ of the new message to the world, how dif- 
ferent would have been the effect ! Imagine the 
result if the simple grace of our English Bible were to 
be replaced by the swelling periods of Milton or Bacon. 
A far simpler language was and is needed by the lowly, 
and this we shall see the later Greek to be. 

The language of the Macedonian Greeks, \vhich was 
the same as that carried into Asia by Alexander, was 
essentially the same as that which Plato, Sophocles, 
and Demosthenes had used. From this wide diffusion, 
however, many changes were effected in the gram- 
matical structure of the language, and especially in the 
vocabulary. Much of the rigidness which had charac- 
terized it in the hands of the great Athenian writers 
was cast aside. The language was popularized, so to 
speak. This new form of the Greek was called Hel- 
lenistic Greek, and the people who learned and used 
it were known as Hellenists. We have had occasion 
already to refer to the Hellenistic Jews in Alexandria 
and other cities. 

In Palestine, however, as well as in the other 
Semitic countries, this Hellenistic Greek was greatly 
corrupted by the native tongue. Hebrew, Aramaic, 
and Syriac words were being continually introduced 



INTRODUCTION. XIX 

into the Greek. To a large number of people who 
would use the Greek, it would amount to nothing other 
than a translation of their native tongue, together wi*h 
the native idiom. Their thinking was all in Aramaic, 
while their words were in Greek. The hterature of the 
Hebrew and Aramaic was entirely of a religious nature. 
The religious fervour of the Jews gave a strong bent to 
the tone of their language. It was the language of the 
human heart longing for the kingdom of God and 
the coming of the Messiah. The words in common, 
every-day use were the same as those in which had 
been cast the revelation of God to his chosen people. 
Even at an early day this must have given a deep 
rehgious colouring to the Greek — hitherto a pagan 
language. The translation, however, of the Old Testa- 
ment did most to fix the idiom and form of the Greek 
for the expression of religious ideas. Then it was that 
Greek meant something to the Jews beyond a con- 
venient means of intercourse for commercial life. 
For two centuries and a half this Greek Bible worked 
into the hearts and minds of the dispersed Jews, and 
the words that before in pagan Greece and Rome had 
meant little beyond the mortal and perishable of this 
world, took on a new meaning — fired with the flame 
of the sacred Hebrew. 

When we come to the language of the New Testa- 
ment, we have crossed a wondrous gulf. To quote 
from the words of the celebrated Dr. Schaff: "The 
language of the apostles and evangelists is baptized 
with the spirit and fire of Christianity, and receives a 
character altogether peculiar and distinct from secular 



XX INTRODUCTION. 

Greek. . . . The Greek was flexible and elastic 
enough to admit of a transformation under the inspir- 
ing influences of revealed truth. It furnished the flesh 
and blood for the incarnation of divine ideas. Words 
in common use among the classics, or in popular 
intercourse, were clothed with a deeper spiritual 
significance ; they were transplanted from a lower to 
a higher sphere, from mythology to revelation, from 
the order of nature to the order of grace, from the 
realm of sense to the realm of faith." It is worth 
while to note the word " transformation " in the above. 
Here is the key to the whole question. How rich this 
baptism of the pagan words has been may be seen by 
comparing the New Testament and the classical sense 
of such words as love, faith, prophet, sin, glory, peace, 
joy, niercy. 

The purity of the New Testament Greek diff'ers 
very considerably in diff"erent authors, and indeed in 
one and the same writer we can observe two extremes. 
Luke, for example, in the first four verses of his gospel 
furnishes a specimen of as pure and elegant Greek as 
may be found on the page of any classical author. 
Immediately, however, he drops off into the vernacu- 
lar, as though aware that he is addressing the many 
and not the few. In considerable portions of his 
gospel and the Acts are to be found the harshest 
Hebraisms. This is especially ■ noticeable when he 
quotes from the Old Testament. In all the writers of 
the New Testament, the Hebrew of the Old Testament 
quotation appears distinctly through the thin veiling 
of the Greek. 



INTRODUCTION. XXI 

Of the four evangelists Luke was the best educated, 
and therefore used the purest Greek. Matthew may 
be placed next, with Mark last. Concerning John, 
there is great difference of opinion. Some scholars 
declare his gospel the most thoroughly Hebrew of the 
four. It is said to have a Hebrew body with a Greek 
dress. On the other hand, there are those who main- 
tain for him the purest Greek. The fact is, his short 
sentences would fall naturally into the idiom of almost 
any language. Paul's Greek exhibits nearly every 
variety of classic elegance. However, it does not 
come within the scope of this article to give the pecu- 
liarities of the individual authors. 

It is necessary to speak more definitely as regards 
the linguistic differences between the Greek of the 
New Testament and, that of the period of classical 
Greek, which we may consider to have closed with 
Aristotle (b.c. 384-322). i. The vocabulary of the 
New Testament furnishes nearly 900 words that are 
not found in the classical writers. Many of these 
occur in subsequent authors, as Polybius and Plutarch 
and in the Septuagint. 2. Compound words are 
especially common. Rare combinations are used. 
The etymology always reveals the force of the expres- 
sion. 3. What is called the doctrinal sense of certain 
words, as love, hope, faith, introduces a new element 
quite distinct from anything earlier. 

Grammatically, very wide changes from the classical 
Greek may be noted, i. The dual number has dis- 
appeared entirely. 2. Adjectives of the third declen- 
sion in -ων {;ό}ΐ) and -vs {^-us) are especially rare. Of 



XXll INTRODUCTION. 

adjectives in -ψ {-es) there are but two or three com- 
mon examples. 3. The comparison of adjectives has 
been simpHfied, and is usually done by the use of an 
adverb, and the positive degree, except in the case 
of a few adjectives of irregular comparison. 

In the verb a great breaking away from classical 
usage is seen. i. The optative mood is comparatively 
rare. It does not occur at all in the writings of John, 
and is found in the epistles and the Acts more than in 
the gospels. Except in the optative of wis/t or desire, 
the subjunctive regularly takes the place of this mood. 
2. In the uses of the voice and tense the changes are 
not so marked. In the subjunctive rarely any tense 
occurs aside from the present and the aorist. 3. It 
may be observed that in the verbs those in -μι {-mi) 
tend to break down into the ending in -ω (-ο), while 
verbs in -ιζω {-idso) are much more common than 
in other Greek. 4. The forms in -μι (-mi) in the 
present system are comparatively rare. Hardly ever 
does the present subjunctive of these verbs occur, 
while the second aorist system has few forms in this 
mood. 

The syntax is too difficult a question to discuss here, 
and so but few points shall be presented, i. Especially 
characteristic of New Testament Greek are the various 
uses of Lva {hi)ia), which in classical Greek is confined 
for the most part to the introduction of 7?;/ iz/ clauses. 
Of this conjunction there are no less than six well- 
defined uses in the New Testament. 2. While in 
classical Greek the conjunction ώστε {hoste) is used 
with either the indicative or infinitive to denote result, 



INTRODUCTION. XXUl 

and with nearly equal frequency in both constructions, 
the indicative occurs but twice in the New Testament. 
3. The participle still continues a fundamental form 
of construction, but shows signs of weakening in such 
instances as John 11 : i and Luke 15 : i, where the 
simple imperfect of the verb would have been expected. 
This form of expression is most common in Luke. 

The prepositions present a great variety of uses not 
inherent in the Greek word, thus betraying Hebrew 
influence. 

These are only a few of the most marked pecu- 
liarities of the language of the New Testament, but 
perhaps enough to show that it is much weakened 
and simplified as compared with classical Greek. If 
one adds to the grammatical peculiarities here men- 
tioned the strong colouring in idiom and vocabulary 
that arises from the Hebrew, a general notion may be 
formed as to the structure of this language. 

To know thoroughly the real force and value of this 
language, a wide familiarity with Semitic — especially 
Hebrew and Aramaic — is indispensable. Not only 
this, but the investigator must know Latin, of the 
influence of which I have taken no notice, as well as 
Greek from its earliest beginning in Homer. Such 
preparation as this few are able to acquire. A student 
may, however, gain a very satisfactory facility in 
handling the New Testament language, who knows 
nothing of any language except his own. Careful, 
assiduous labour for a few months will put the average 
student in control of the essentials, and this slight 
acquaintance will be found to repay one a thousand- 



XXIV INTRODUCTION, 

fold. No one can ever attain to the ability of reading 
and understanding the grand simplicity and power of 
John's brief sentences, ringing as they do with the 
imperishable grandeur of the Greek, without seeing 
an entirely new power in the Word. Any translation 
must ever fall far short of rendering the grace and 
force of the Greek. As a rose when plucked loses 
its sweetness and the fragrance is soon blown, so 
perishes in translation that fleeting, indescribable 
something that makes Greek the noblest of lan- 
guages. 



The following list of books is recommended as rep- 
resenting perhaps the most helpful works for students 
of the New Testament Greek. Those marked * are 
particularly valuable for the beginner. 

For assistance in making up this hst the author has 
to express his indebtedness to Professor C. F. Brad- 
ley, D.D., Garrett Biblical Institute. He has very 
kindly given me the benefit of his wide knowledge 
of New Testament bibliography. 

Text. *The New Testament in the Original Greek 
(School Edition). Westcott and Hort. Macmillau 
& Co., New York, 1893. $1.25. 

This edition is also published with a lexicon, by the 
same publishers. $1.90. 

Lexicon. *Thayer's Grimm's Wilke, Greek -English 
Lexicon of the New Testament, "Corrected Edi- 
tion." Harper & Brothers, New York, 1889. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. XXV 

Grammar. *Winer's Grammar of New Testament Greek 

(Ninth English Edition). Trans, by Moulton. 

T. & T. Clark, Edinburgh, 1882. $3.60. 
Concordance. *Bruder's Concordance of All the Words 

in the Greek New Testament (Fourth Edition). 

Leipzig, 1888. 25 M. 

A new edition of this monumental work, which will 

include the readings of Westcott and Hort, is to be 

published. 

Bagster's Englishman's Greek Concordance of the New 

Testament. London, 1883. £\, is. 
*Bradley and Horswell's New Testament Word Lists. 

Greek-English. Series L and Π. Garrett Biblical 

Institute, Evanston, 111. 35 cents each. 
*Burton's Syntax of the Moods and Tenses in New Testa- 
ment Greek. Chicago University Press (Second 

Edition). $1.50. 
*Buttman's Grammar of the New Testament. Trans, by 

Thayer. W. F. Draper, Andover, Mass. $2.75. 
Hatch's Essays on Biblical Greek. Macmillan & Co., 

New York. $2.75. 
Robinson's Greek Harmony of the Gospels. Ed. by M. B. 

Riddle. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston, 1885. 

$2.00. 
*Schaff's Companion to the Greek Testament and English 

Version (Fourth Edition). Harper & Brothers, New 

York, 1892. $2.75. 
Simcox's (W.H.) The Language of the New Testament. 

Thomas Whitaker, New York, 75 cents. By the 

same author, The Writers of the New Testament. 

Same publishers and price. 
Terry's Biblical Herrneneutics. Hunt and Eaton, New 

York. $4.00. 



XXVI BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

*Thayer's Books and their Use, A Lecture, to which is 
added a Hst of books for students of the New Tes- 
tament Greek. Houghton, Mifflin & Co., Boston. 
75 cents. 

An exceedingly helpful little volume. 

Trench's Synonyms of the New Testament (Eleventh 
Edition). Macmillan & Co., New York, 1890. $3.50. 

*Warfield's An Introduction to the Textual Criticism of 
the New Testament. Whitaker, New York. 75 cents. 

Westcott's Introduction to the Study of the Four Gospels 
(Seventh Edition, American Edition). Macmillan & 
Co., New York. $2.25. 

*Westcott and Hort's The New Testament in the Original 
Greek. 2 vols. Harper & Brothers, New York. 

Vol. I. includes the text. Vol. II. has an Intro- 
duction to Textual Criticism and an Appendix. Price 
per vol. $2.00. Complete $3.50. 



SUGGESTIONS TO THE STUDENT. 



1. All vocabularies must be thoroughly mastered. Writ- 
ing the words several times will greatly help to fix them in 
the mind. Pronouncing the Greek aloud is helpful. 

2. The acquisition of forms {i.e. declensions and conju- 
gations) must keep pace with the matter of a vocabulary. 

3. It is recommended that at least thirty lessons be mas- 
tered before the reading of the Greek text is attempted. 

4. Care should be taken in learning points of syntax 
that occur in the lessons. 

5. When the text is finally begun, the table of irregular 
verbs (§ 88) should be committed to memory. Also the 
verb forms in §§ 90-110 should be carefully studied. 

6. When the Greek Testament is taken up, the syntax 
in Part III. may be studied to best advantage. At no time 
should the student fail to keep up the review of Part II. 

7. Finally, learn words, words, words. Only steady 
application and continual review will bring satisfactory 
results. 



PART Ι — LESSONS; TEXT 



ESSENTIALS OF 
NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



1. 

άκονω, I hear. 
γινώ(Γκω, / know. 
4'χω, I have. 



LESSON I. 

VOCABULARY. 

θίλω, / wish, will. 
λαλεω, I speak. 
λαμβάνω, I take. 



λί'γω, Γ say. 
ΐΓίστίύω, I believe. 
•iroi€«, I do, make. 



a. Each of these ΛνοΓάε occurs more than 200 times in 
the New Testament, and some of them 1500 times. 

2. Notes on the Vocabulary. 

a. ά-κου-ω, a-kou-5, / hear; cf. ACOUSTIC, α = λ in 
father; κ = hard c, as in can; ov is a diphthong com- 
posed of ο and ν (EngHsh and a) and pronounced like 
ou in group; ω = <? in note. The mark (') over the initial 
vowel of this word is called the breathing. Note the turn 
from right to left. This is called the smooth breathing, 
and it does not affect the sound of the vowel. The mark 
(') over the ου is the acute accent. The ending -ω equals 
/in English. 

b. 'yL -νώ-σκω, gi-no-sko, / know, y — hard g, as in 
get; i = i in machine; ν = η ; a=y. Observe the same 
accent and on the same syllable as in άκου'ω. 



2 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TEST.\MENT GREEK. 

c. €-χω, e-ch5, / have. € = e in lei ; χ= c/i, of which 
there is no equivalent sound in English. It is found in 
the German oiic/t. Cf. chasm pronounced in a harsh gut- 
tural tone. The accent and breathing, when they occur on 
the same syllable, are written together, as here. All words 
beginning with a vowel have a breathing mark. 

d. θ€-λω, the-15, / wi'/l or / ivt'sh. θ = th in thin ; λ = /. 

e. λα-λί-ω, la-le-5, / speak. The accent occurs on 
what syllable of the verb so far? 

/. \αμ-βά-νω, \'am-ha.-no, / iake. /a = ;;; ; β = ί>. 

g. ke-yw, le-go, /say. 

h. 7Γ6-στ€υ-ω, ρϊ -steu-o, / believe. n—p\ r = t\ ευ 
= the diphthong eu in feud. When the accent comes 
on a diphthong, it is placed over the second vowel, as 
here. Cf. άκονω. 

/. TTOL-i-w, poi-e -δ, / do, or wake ; cf. POET, POETRY, 
oi is a diphthong pronounced like oi in oil. 

3. Topics for study. 

a. The vowels in this lesson are a, e, i, o, v, ω. The 
following diphthongs occur : ov, ev, oi. The consonants 
are : β = ύ, y =£-, e — ih,K = k,k = l,^ = w, v = ;i, π =p, 
σ = Sf τ = I, x = ch. 

b. In the matter of the accent of verbs the following 
must be noted, i. The accent is always recessive, i.e. it 
goes back as far as possible from the last syllable. 2. The 
last syllable determines the position of the accent. 3. If 
the last syllable is long, the accent always occurs on the 
next to the last syllable — the penull ; otherwise on the 
third syllable — the antepenult. 4. A syllable is long if it 
has a long vowel or a diphthong in it. 

4. In English we have' the personal pronouns 
written generally before the verb and always 



PRESENT INDICATIVE ACTIVE. 3 

separate from the verb. In Greek, on the -con~ 
trary, the pronouns are often found as an 
integral part of the verb, forming what is called 
the />ersoua/ endings. Cf. -ω in the verbs given 
above. In the case of most verbs the ending 
-μι of the I per. sing. pres. ind. act. is dropped, 
and the preceding vowel is lengthened in com- 
pensation. Ξ.σ-. the primary form of λέγω is 
Xey-0 -μι, of ακούω is άκού-ο-μί : ακον = Stem, ο = 
variable vowel, μι = personal ending. 



LESSON II. 

5. Present Indicative Active. 
Swg. Phir. 

1. λ6γ-ω, /j-izy. I. λ€γ-ο-μ.€ν, W^ Jizy. 

2. \i-i-i\.%,^ you say. 2. \i-\i-i-Ti., ye say. 

3. λί'γ-ίΐ, he, she, or it says. 3. λί'γ-ουσ-ι, they say. 

Observe from the translation appended that 
the indicative mood has in Greek the same 
declarative force as in English. 

a. «as in Aeyct? is a diphthong and equals ei in height. 

6. Note in the conjugation of λέγω : 1. The 
theme λεγ- appears unchanged throughout. 
2. A vowel occurs after this theme. 3. The 

1 s at the close of a word, but σ in the middle of a word. 



4 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

vowel is or e (often written %), called the 
variable vowel. 4. The variable vowel is fol- 
lowed by an ending, as -μβν, -re, in the plur., 
which is called the personal ending. See 4. 
How many distinct parts has Χ&η-ο-μ^ν ? 

7. The personal endings of the active voice, 
primary ^ tenses, are seen in the following : 



Sing. I. 


-μι, /. Flur. 


I. 


-μ€ν, we. 


2. 


-s, i/iou. 


2. 


-T€, ye. 


3• 


-σι (τι), /it', she, it. 


3- 


-νσ-ι, they. 



8. The variable vowel and the personal end- 
ing may be seen in the following : 

ο-μι ο-μ£ν 

€-β €-Τ€ 

€-<ri 0-ν<ΓΙ 

Note that ο occurs before μι, μβν, and νσι, i.e. 
before μ and ν, e occurring in all other places. 

9. Certain changes take place in these primi- 
tive forms, which give the following : 

-«, /. -ομ£ν, we. 

-£is, tho7i. -ετ£, ye. 

-€i, he, she, it. -ovo-i, they. 

These fonns must be absolutely mastered. 

1 See § 52 for the meaning of the word primary. (Where 
reference is made to the grammar, a section mark [§] precedes the 
figure, otherwise the reference is to the first part, — the lessons.) 



PRESENT INDICATIVE ACTIVE. 5 

10. EXERCISES. 

I. Translate into English : 

I. \αμβάν€ί, άκονβι, OeXere. 2. τηστευω, Χαμ- 
βάνουσι, βγ^ουσι, ιτοίίω. 3• Χαμβάνβτβ^ ^eXei?, 
ττιστεύβις. 4• ^ινώσκβις, άκούουσι, έχο/Αβι^, Χέ- 
yere. ζ. θέΧονσι, Ύΐνώσκετβ, τηστβύομζν^ άκού€ί<;, 
6. Χαμβάνβί^., τηστβύβτβ, ακούει. 

11. Translate into Greek : 

I. I take, you wish, they know. 2. I have, 
ye say, they have, we say. 3. You take, he 
hears, we have. 4. You believe, ye believe, 
they hear. 5. We know, they know, I say, they 
do.^ 6. We wish, we speak,^ ye do. 

Let the student analyze each verb form carefully, point- 
ing out the theme, variable vowel, and the personal end- 
ing. Apply also the principles of accent given in 3, ί>. 

1 It is recommended that the teacher allow the matter of 
contract verbs to pass unnoticed, till the principles of contrac- 
tion appear gradually in the lessons. No harm need arise from 
the student's writing uncontracted forms. The frequent occur- 
rence of these verbs in -εω explains their appearance here. 



6 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAAIENT GREEK. 

LESSON III. 

The Second or 0-Declension. 

11. vocabulary. 

apTos, bread. XP<5vos, time., CHRONO/(?gy. 

Θρόν05, THRONE. άγγ€λθ9, ANGEL. 

κόσ•μθ9, world, COSMIC. άνθρωττοβ, wa;/, ANTHROPO/i»^• 

λίθοϊ. stone., -LYXWOgraphy . άττόστολο?, apostle. 

λόγοξ, word., LOGIC. ί'ρημο?, desert. 

νόμο8, law, eco'^iO'SW. θάνατο?, death, THANATO^j/j. 

οχλο9, crowd. Kvpios, Lord. 

Toiros, place, Tocography . 

The student should learn thoroughly the mean- 
ings of the words in each vocabulary, pronounc- 
ing each v^rord aloud, so as to be sure to get the 
proper accent. The case cjitiings are to be abso^ 
lutely mastered. Some of the words in this 
vocabulary occur looo times in the New Tes- 
tament. 

a. αρτο5. ar-tos. p = ^; o = ovc\.on. 

b. In άγγελο? the first γ is pronounced like ng. This 
is always true of γ when followed by κ, ■>/. or y^. 

c. In ίρημο'ί, the η = e, and is pronounced like e in 
they. 

d. V in κύριος = u. There is no similar sound in Eng- 
lish. See § 1. The sound approaches e in key. 

This includes all the vowels in Greek. 



THE SECOND OR 0-DECLENSION. 7 

12. It is to be observed : i. All these nouns 
end in -09. 2. All these nouns belong to the 
O-declension. 3. They all have the aaite 
accent. 

13. All nouns in Greek come under one of 
three declensions, §9 ^^ ^^<^ 1"^• The following 
is the second or O-declension : 

Shtg. Plnr. 

Nom. λόγο5, a word. λόγοι, words. 

Gen. \6-<{ov, of a word. \o^o)v, of words. 

Dat. λόγω, to or for a word, λόγοιβ, to or for words. 

Ace. \o-nov, a word (oh].). \6yov<i, words {oh].). 

Voc. λόγ£, Ο word. λόγοι, Ο words. 

a. The ending -ω in the dat. sing, is for -01. ο is 
lengthened to ω, and t {iota) is written underneath. This 
is called iota-subscript, and can never be wanting in the 
dat. sing, of this declension. 

14. Observe from the above that there are five 
cases in Greek : Nominative, Genitive, Dative, 
Accusative, Vocative. The nominative equals 
English nominative ; the genitive equals Eng- 
lish possessive or the objective with of; the 
dative corresponds to the English indirect objec- 
tive, to or for which anything is or is done ; the 
accusative is the English direct objective ; the 
vocative, which is rarely used, is the case of 
address. Cf. § 21. 



8 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

15. In verbs we noted that the endings are 
especially important as showing the person and 
number. So in nouns also the relation of nouns 
to each other, and to the other parts of the sen- 
tence, is denoted by the case endings. While in 
English we have to depend (for the most part) 
on prepositions such as to, for, by, in, at, on, of, 
etc., to express case relation, the Greek has 
this relation expressed by the endings of the 
several cases. 

(There are, of course, prepositions in Greek, 
but these case endings are always observed 
apart from the prepositions), 

16. Observe that the accent on λόγος remains 
on the same syllable tJiroughont the declension. 
This is the fundamental principle of accent in 
nouns. The accent remains on the same syllable, 
if possible. 

17. Learn the declension of ανθρωττος, § 23. 

a. When the last syllable becomes long, as in the end- 
ings -ου, -ω, -ων, -ois, -ονς (3, d, 4), the accent cannot 
remain on the antepenult, but removes to the penult. 
Cf. the same principle in verbs, 3, d. 

b. Final 01, although a diphthong, is considered short 
in determining the place of accent in the O-declension. 

c. The accent of the nominative must be learned by 
observation. 



THE SECOND OR 0-DECLENSION. 9 

18. EXERCISES. 

I. I. άτΓοστο'λω, θρόνων., νόμον, 'χρόνοις. 
2. άνθρωτΓΟί^ κόσμου., Xoyot κυρίου. 3• όχΧος 
άνθρώττων, νόμω καΐ^ οχΧω. 4• ίίττόο-τοΧος Xeyei. 
5. άττόστοΧος Xeyei \oyov. 6. άττοστοΧος Xejei 
Xoyov άνθρώττω. y. ayyeXoL άκουουσί. 8. κόσ- 
yu.09 TTiareoei. g. Χαμβάνβτβ άρτον. ΙΟ. οχΧο^ 
yLvoiaKeL. II. άνθρωττοι βχ^ουσι νόμους. 

II. Ι. Of a man, to a throne, words of men. 

2. Angels and men, to the world, of a desert. 

3. Death of apostles. 4. He takes a stone. 
5. Words of man to a world. 6. Ye say to 
a crowd. 7. We have a place. 8. An angel 
of (the) Lord. 9. We hear law and believe. 
10. He has bread for apostles. 

•lesson IV. 

The 0-Declension Concluded, 

19. vocabulary. 

ά8€λφ,09, brother. οφθαλμός, eye, OPHTHALMO- 
0€0s, God. logy. 

λα05. people. vlos, son. 

viKpos, deceased, ^Y.CKOlogy. dSos, way. 

ουρανός, heaven. δοϋλος, servant. 

'^ The acute accent ('), on a final syllable, is changed to the 
grave (^) when other words follow in a sentence. 



ϊΟ ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

oIkos, house. ιταιδίον, little child. 

«ργον, work. πλοίο v, boat. 

Upov, temple. irpoo-wirov, face. 

Ιμάτιον, garment. σάββατον, SABBATH, 

τίκνον, child. 

20. (t• (χδελφοϊ, a-dei-phos. δ = </ ; ή>= ph να. phase. 

b. In ουρανός observe that the breathing occurs on the 
second vowel of the diphthong. 

c. The diphthong vt, as in νΙός, is pronounced like wee. 
The breathing is always rough ('), i.e. the explosion of 
breath is so strong as to give an h sound, vi is, then, 
pronounced ^uJiee. 

d. Note the rough breathing on ί^άτιον, hi-ma-ti-on, 
and tepov, hi-e-ron, οδός, ho-dos. 

e. at as in Traihiov — ai in aisle. 

21. There are two principal accents in Greek, 
the acute (') and the circumflex ("). The acute 
can occur on any one of the last three syllables, 
while the circumflex can occur on one of the 
last two. 

22. Learn the declension of υί'ός, son, § 23, 
and note that in every gen. and dat. the acute 
(') is changed to a circumflex ("). 

23. Learn the declension of hovXo';, servant, 
§ 23, and observe that the circumflex accent 
occurs on a long syllable only, and when at the 
same time the last syllable is short. When the 
ultima becomes long, the (") changes to the ('). 



THE SECOND OR O-DECLENSION. II 

24. Nouns of the 0-declension end in -o? 
masc. (rarely fern.) and -ov neut. The inflection 
of neuter nouns is the same as that of masculine 
nouns, except that the nom., ace, and voc. sing, 
end in -ov, and the same cases in the plur. end 
in -a. Cf. 8ώρορ, £'^f^> b ^^• 

25. All adjs. in Greek are declined, and agree 
in gender, number, and case with the words 
they modify. The definite article ///i', 6, is an 
adj. and is declined ; e.£: 6 Βοΰλος, the servant ; 
TOO SovXov, of the servant ; το τ4κνον, the child ; 
τω τίκνω, to the child; τα τέκνα, the children; 
των λό^ων, of the words. Learn the masc. and 
neut. (0 and τό) of the article, § 24. 

26. EXERCISES. 

I. I. τω λόγω καΐ τοις λογοί9• 2. των ΒουΧων 
καΧ τω τταιδίω. 3- ''"ο σάββατον τοις άνθρώττοις. 
4- ό κύριος του σαββάτου. 5• ό άδεΧφος ηινώ- 
σκ€ί το τβκνον. 6. ο \αος e^et τους νόμους. 
7- \αμβάν€Τ€ άρτον καΐ ιμάτια. 8. οι άττόστο- 
Χοί άκούουσι των τταιΒίων.^ 9• ^^ (ΐ^) '''Φ ί^ρώ 
Χε'γομβν. ΙΟ. τον κύριον του κόσμου <γινωσκ€Τ€. 

Π. Ι. In (eV) the temple and in the boat. 
2. To the people and of the people. 3. The 

^ Verbs of hearing may be followed by the genitive case, as 
the case of the direct object. 



Γ2 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

eyes of the servant. 4. For the work and for 
the garments. 5. Ye hear the people.^ 6. The 
apostle knows the law. 7. I speak to the ser- 
vants, and they hear. 8. The Lord has a 
temple in Heaven. 9. We have the garments 
for the children. 10. The son of God knows 
the world. 

LESSON V. 

The Present Passive Indicative. 

27. vocabulary. 

iyairaia, I love. ίγείρω, / raise up. 

βάλλω, I throw. κρίνω, I judge. 

βλέπω, Γ see. ιτίμιτω, I send. 

γράφω, ί write, GRAPHzV. σ-τίλλω, /send. 

8ιδά(Γκω, / teach, OlOACTic. σ-ώζω, / save. 

a. In σώζω, save, ^ is a double consonant, ds, and 
pronounced like dz in adze. 

28. The passive voice, as in English, repre- 
sents the subject as being acted upon. The 
personal endings of the passive distinguish it 
from the active. 

Following are the primary pass, endings ; 

Sing. I. -μαι, /. Piur. I. -μ^Βα, we. 

2. -a-ai, γοί(. 2. -a-9(, ye. 

3. -ταν, he. 3. -νται, they. 

^ See footnote, p. 1 1. . , 



THE PRESENT PASSIVE INDICATIVE. 1 3 

a. The variable vowel % is found as in the active 
voice. Before μ and v, ο occurs, and before all other 
endings e is found. 

29. The following is the conjugation of the 
pres. pass. ind. of \ύω, I loose : 

Sing. Plur. 

1. λν-0-μαι, ί am loosed, i. λυ-ό-μίθα, we are loosed. 

2. \v-t\., you are loosed. 2. Xv-t-v^i., ye are loosed. 

3. λν-ί-ται, he is loosed. 3. λν-ο-νται, they are loosed. 

a. Observe that the 2 per. sing, λύει is for λύεσαι, 
σα is dropped, and e and t form the diphthong et. ύ\ may 
be found instead of «. 

b. The same principle of accent is to be noted as 
in 3, b. at is considered short in the personal endings, 
hence the accent occurs on the antepenult. 

30. EXERCISES. 

I. I. βάΧλβι, βάΧλβται, ττέμττβις, ττέμττε- 
σθε. 2. κρίνβι, κρίνεται δώάσκω, ΒίΒάσκομαι. 
3- Χαμβάνετβ, Χαμβάνεσθε., άκονουσι, ακούονται. 
4• στεΧλόμβθα, βΧέττουσι, /γράφομεν. ζ. σωζβτε, 
iyeipouai, τηστβύομεν, Ύράφεται. 6. οι άνθρωποι 
κρίνονται. 7• ε'γειρόμεθα βίς (into) τον ούρανόν. 
8. γράφεται iv (in) τω νόμω. 9• ό f ί'ος άνθρωπου 
σώζεται. ΙΟ. iv τω ναω^ Xeyei και άκονβται. 

11. οι άττόστοΧοι et9 τον κόσμον στέΧΧονται. 

12. τΓίστευομβν et? (on) τον κύριον και σωζό- 

μέθα. 

^ Temple. 



14 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

II. I. He sees and is saved. 2. You believe 
and are saved. 3. We judge and are judged. 
4. They send and are sent. 5. He raises up 
the dead. 6. It is written in the laws. 7. We 
see the brethren. 8. The son of man is judged, 
9. The Lord hears in the temple. 10. I speak 
and am heard, n. We are saved and are raised 
up into Heaven. 12. Ye take the bread. 
13. They know that {οτή the Lord saves men. 

We have so far met in the vocabularies 52 words, which 
give more than 400 different forms by their inflection. 

LESSON VI. 
Imperfect iNoiCATrvE Active. 

31. VOCABULARY. 

άγω, leiid. Λαλί'ω, caU. 

βατΓτίζω, BAPTIZE. μαρτυράω, dear witnesSj 

ίσθίω, eat. martyr. 

ζάω, live. μΐί'λλω, a/ft about. 

ζητί'ω, seek. μί'νω, r^MAIN. 

For the tenses of the indicative mood see 
§§ 50 and 52. The uses and meanings of the 
various tenses will be explained as we advance. 

32. . The imperfect indicative represents an 
act -sjs, going on in time past, — continued, accus- 
tomed, or repeated action ; eg. e^pa^ov, I was 
zuriting ; eXvov, I ivas loosing ; έβάτττιζβ, he was 
baptizing. 



IMPERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE. 1 5 

33. All active secondary tenses (§ 52) have 
the same personal endings, as follows : 

Sittg. I. -V Plur. I. -μ€ν 

2. -S 2. -T£ 

3. none 3. -v or -<rav 

34. The imperfect indicative of λύω : 

Sing. Plur. 

1 . €-λυ-ο-ν, / was loosing. «-λύ-ο-μίν, we were loosing. 

2. ί-λυ-6 -s, yo2i were loosing. Ι-λύ-ε-τί, ye were loosing. 

3. £-λυ-£, he was loosing. €-λυ-ο-ν, they were loosing. 

35. Observe : i. The variable vowel % as in 
the present tense. 2. The e before the stem 
\v. This is called augment. 

36. The secondary tenses, besides having dif- 
ferent endings from the primary, have also an 
augment. This augment is of two forms, i. If 
the verb begins with a consonant, € is prefixed 
— syllabic augment. 2. In the case of verbs 
beginning with a vowel, this vowel is length- 
ened to the corresponding long vowel (except α 
gives η) — temporal augment. In diphthongs 
made with ι the first vowel is lengthened, and 
ι appears as iota subscript. Other diphthongs 
do not ordinarily have the augment ; e.g. άκοίω, 
hear ; ηκουον, I was liearing ; άηω, lead ; η^ον, 
I was leading : βσθίω, eat ; ήσθιον, I tvas eating. 



1 6 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

37. EXERCISES. 

I. I. €βα\\ον, e/cpive^ β'^ράφετβ. 2. βκρίνομβν, 
ηκονομβν, ββλβττον. 3• ττιστευόμβθα καΐ β'γράφο- 
μβν. 4• vy^tp^'i•) ησθί€Τ€, β^ινωσκβτβ. 5• ^μ^νο- 
μβν ev τω ττΧοίω. 6. ^γε? τα τέκνα. 7• 'Π<^θίον 
τον άρτον. 8. οΐ άττόστοΧοι ββάτττίζον τους 
άνθρωτΓους. g. είχ^ον ^ τους ΒονΧους ev τω οϊκω. 

Π. Ι. We were hearing. 2. He was be- 
lieving. 3. They were taking. 4. You were 
saying. 5. Ye were beholding. 6. They were 
raising up. 7. He was judging. 8. I was eat- 
ing the bread. 9. He was leading the sons 
of men. 10. We saw the face of the Lord. 
II. The God of Heaven saves the children of 
men. 12. Ye were remaining in the law. 

LESSON VIL 
Imperfect Indicative Passive. 

38. vocabulary. 

αΙτ€ω, ask /or. Βίωρέω, see, observe, theory. 

άκολουθεω, follow. κηρνσ-οτω, preach, annoHfice. 

γίννόω, beget. ιτείθω, persuade. 

δοξάζω, glorify. -π-ληρόω, βΙΙ, PLKfily. 

«ρωτάω, α^^ (a question), κράζω, ί//. 

^ 6χω is an exception to the principle stated in 36, 2, and takes 
the syllabic augment, eexov is contracted to είχον, § 6, y. 



IMPERFECT INDICATIVE PASSIVE. 1 7 

a. In δο^ά^ω, glorify, occurs the double consonant f, 
from κ + σ, and pronounced lilce ks in ricks. 



39. The personal endings in the secondary 
tenses of the indicative passive are : 

Sing. I. -μην Plur. i. -μίθο 

2. -σο 2. -σθί 

3- -το 3• '^"^^ 



40. The conjugation of λύω is 





Sing. 


Plur. 


I. 


t -λυ-ό-μην, / was being loosed. 


I. ί-λυ-ό-μ€θα 


2. 


ί-λύ-ου, yoii were . . . 


2. €-λύ-€-<Γθί 


3- 


€-λύ-ί-το, etc. 


3• €-λύ-ο-ντο 



a. In the 2 per. sing, -«σο changes to -ου, «τ drops 
between the two vowels, and eo contracts to ου, § 5, 7. 

Review the present and imperfect indicative 
active and passive of \νω, § 56. 

41. The personal endings of the verb give us 
the following : 

a. The person of the verb. 

b. The number of the verb. 

c. The tense, whether primary or secondary, and by 
this whether past or not. 

d. The voice of the verb. 

e. The mood to some extent, as we shall see later on. 



Ι δ ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

42. The changes in the endings that are to 
be particularly noted are : 

ACTIVE. PASSIVE. 

-ομι = -ω -c(rai = -€i or -η 

-£(r = -CIS -€<ro = -ου 

-€<ri = -£l 

-ov<ri — -owcri 

The importance of mastering the personal 
endings of the verb, and, indeed, the whole 
matter of the verb, cannot well be overesti- 
mated. It is safe to say that the student who 
has thoroughly learned the detail of the verb 
given thus far has mastered the greater part of 
the difficulty in the regular verb, and has gone 
far towards gaining a reading knowledge of the 
New Testament. 

The student should now be familiar with more than 800 
different forms. 

43. EXERCISES. 

I. I. rj'yero καϊ rj'ye. 2. ββατττίζβτο, βαπτίζε- 
ται. 3• ihihaaKeTO iv τω iepS. 4. €κρινόμεθα. 
5• στέλλεται καϊ βστέΧΧβσθε. 6. βσωζου. 7• ^^ 
τω ο'ίκω εδο^άζετο. 8. 6 κνριο<; ηκούετο. 9• ο^' 
άττόστοΧοι βίς τον ούρανον εβΧεττον. ΙΟ. τα 
τέκνα βκραζβ.^ 

1 Α neuter plural nom. takes a verb in the singular in Greek. 



FIRST OR A- DECLENSION. 1 9 

II. I. We believed and were saved. 2. Ye 
were glorified. 3. He was preaching to the 
men. 4. The son of man was being glorified. 

5. I was judging and I was being judged. 

6. The world trusted in (βίς) the Lord. 7. The 
angel of Heaven was heard. 8. We persuade 
the sons of men. 9. The law was taught in the 
temple. 10. The work of man is judged. 

LESSON VIII. 
First or A-Declension. 

44. vocabulary. 

αρχή, ή, beginning, ARCHAIC, «κκλησία, η, church ; cf. EC- 

■γραψή, ή, sC7-ipttire, luritings. clesiastical. 

ίντολή, η, commandment. «ξουσ-ίο, τ\, power. 

ζωή, ή, life, ZOOLOGY. καμδία, ή, heart ; cf. CAR- 

Ίταραβολή, ή, PARABLE. DIAC. 

συναγωγή, ή, SYNAGOGUE. 6'π•αγγ€λία, τ\, promise. 

φωνή, η, voice, PHO^ograph. οικία, ή house. 

ψυχή, ή, soul, vsYcnology . ο-οφία, ή, zuisdom, soph- 

άμαρτία, η, sin. istry. 

Most of these nouns oc ur as many as 100 
times in the New Testament. 

a. φ in φνχη, soul, is a double consonant, pronounced 
like ps in lips. This now gives us all the letters in Greek. 
Learn the classification of consonants in § 2. 

d. Observe the gender of the nouns in the vocabulary. 
In what letters do the nouns end ? Cf. §§ 18 and 19. 



20 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



.45. The following paradigms of αρχή and 
σοφία will serve as models for the remaining 
nouns of this form : 





αρχή, A 


egi)iiiing. 


(Γθψ(α, 


wisdom. 




Stem 


αρχα- 


Stem 


σοφίά- 




Sing. 


Plur. 


Sing. 


Plur. 


N. V. 


άρχή 


apxaC 


<Γθψ(α 


ο-οψ(αι 


G. 


άρχήε 


άρχων 


«Γοφίαξ 


«Γοψιών 


D. 


apxii 


άρχαϊς 


(τοψία 


σοψίαις 


A. 


αρχήν 


άρχάδ 


(Γοφίαν 


σοψία$ 



46. Observe: ι. The stem ends in ά, hence 
the term A-declension. 2. The case endings 
are somewhat similar to those already learned 
in the O-declension : {a) the dat. sing, must 
have iota-subscript ;■ {b) the ace. sing, ends in -v; 
(c) the gen. plur. in -ων ; (d) -ol of the second = 
-at of the first, and -oi? of the second = -at? of 
the first. 3. That nouns having -η in the nomi- 
native retain -η throughout the sing., and nouns 
with La in the nominative retain the a in all 
cases of the snig. 

47. Nouns that have the acute accent on the 
last syllable (the jiltima) are called oxytones ; 
e.g. άρχΐ], ζωή. Rule of accent : Α/ί oxytones of 
the first and second declension have the circum- 
flex accent in all genitives and datives. 



FIRST OR A-DECLENSION. 21 

48. Learn the fern, of the art.^ η (§ 24), and 
compare this with the case endings of άρχτη. 

49. EXERCISES. 

I. I. al άμαρτίαί άνθρώττων. 2. η €ντο\η 
ζωή';. 3• V ^ζουσία της ζκκΧησίας. 4• ό κύριος 
\eyei τταραβοΧήν. 5• ^ντοΚην Ύράφω. 6. ev 
άρ-χτ] 6 \oyo<; ηκονβτο. "J. ο όχλος την φωνην 
ηκονβ. 8. αϊ ΎραφαΙ ^Ύράφοντο. 9• Oi άττόστο- 
Xoc την eTTayjeXiav τοις άνθρώττοις βττεμττον. 
ΙΟ. €V τω κόσμω η αμαρτία μβνβι. II. την βξου- 
σίαν 6 νιος άνθρωττου €χ€ί. 12. »; φωνή ev τη 
€ρημω^ εκραζβ. 

Π. Ι. In the synagogue. 2. In the heart of 
men. 3. I hear a voice. 4. The soul is saved. 

5. The parable was spoken in the temple. 

6. He sent the bread of life to men. 7. The 
church has power. 8. They were speaking 
a parable in the synagogue. 9. It is written 
in the scriptures. 10. We have a promise of 
the Lord. 11. Men preached wisdom to the 
world. 12. In the beginning we heard the 
word. 

1 The forms of the article ό, η, οί, ai, are called proclitics 
(^irpo- κλίνω, lean forward'), since they have no accent, and are 
pronounced as part of the following word. 

2 epr/Aios is a fern, noun in -05. 



22 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



50. 



LESSON IX. 



A-Declension Continued. 



VOCABULARY. 



άγάιτη, η, love. 
άλήθ€ΐ,α, η, truth. 
βαοΓίλεία, η, kingdom. 
γή, ή, earth, G'E/)logy. 
γλώ<Γ0•α, η, tongue, GLOSSAr/. 
8ικαι,οσυνη, η, righteousness. 
δόξα, ή, glory. 

ώρα, η, 



£ΐρήνη, η, peace. 

ημ,ΐ'ρα, η, day, i'/HEMERAL. 
θάλασ•(Γα, η, sea. 
κ€ψαλή, η, head. 
μαθητήβ, ό, disciple. 
ιτροφήτη?, ο, PROPHET. 

χ*ρ^, η, joy. 
ho2ir. 



Most of these nouns occur more than lOO 
times in the New Testament. 



51. The following paradigms furnish models 
for other nouns of this declension : 



δόξα, η, glory. 
Stem δο|ά- 



ιτροφήτηβ, ό, prophet. 

Stem νροφητά- 



Sing. 

Ν. -π-ροφήτηβ 
G. ιτροφήτου 
D. ττροφήττ] 
Α. τ-οοφήτην 
V. ιτροφήτα 



52. Learn ώρα and σοφία• § 22. 



Sing. 

Ν. V. δόξα 
G. δόξη? 
D. δόξχ, 
Α. δόξαν 



Plur. 

Ν. V. δόξας 
G. δοξών 
D δόξαι? 
Α. δόξα$ 



Plur. 

Ν. V. Ίτροφήται 
G. ιτροφητών 
D. Ίτροφήταΐδ 
Α. Ίτροφήταβ 



FIRST OR A-DECLENSION. 23 

53. Observe: i. When e, i, or ρ precedes a 
of the nom. sing., a is retained throughout the 
sing. ; and when other letters precede a, as in 
^όξα, the a is changed in the gen. and dat. sing, 
to 77. 2. -ai of the ncm. piur., as in the endings 
of the verb, is considered short in determining 
the accent. 

54. Feminine nouns of the first declension 
end in a, «, or η ; masculine nouns, in -r?;? or 
-a<i. The gen. of masc. nouns is ου, as in the 
O-declension. Masc. nouns in -τη^ have a in the 
voc. sing. 

a. γη, ή, earth, is contracted from yea, § 6, 6. The 
circumflex is found throughout. 

55. The following table shows the case end- 
ings of the A-declension : 

Fein. Sing. Masc. Sing. 



N.V. 


d 


or d 




η 




Ν. 


oi-s 


η -S 


G. 


d-s 


or η -S 




η-5 




G. 


ά-ιο 


= ου 


D. 


d-i 


or η-(, 




η-ι 




D. 


ά-ι 


η-ι 


A. 


d-v 


or d-v 




η-ν 




A. 
V. 


ά-ν 
d 


η-ν 
α or η 






Masc. and Fern 


. Pliir. 












N. 


v. α-ι 
G. ω-ν 
D. α -is 
Α. d-s 


for 
for ( 


α-ων 
a-vs 







24 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

56. Observe that all nouns have the same 
plural in the first declension. If ο be substituted 
for a in this table of endings, the first declension 
will be seen to differ but little from the second. 

57. The following are the principles of noininal 
accent : 

1. There are three kinds of accent : the acute 
('), the circumflex (" ), and the grave ('). 

2. The acute can occur on any one of the 
last three syllables ; the circumflex on either of 
the last two ; the grave on the last. 

3. The acute can stand on a syllable either 
ΙοΗβ: or short ; the circumflex can occur on a 
long syllable only ; i.e. a syllable in which there 
is a long vowel or a diphthong. 

4. The accent in the nominative must be 
learned by observation. 

5. The accent tends to remain on the same 
syllable on which it occurs in the nominative. 

6. When the ultima is sJiort, 

a. The antepenult if accented has the acute. 

b. The penult if accented has the acute, unless it be 
long ; in this case the circumflex must occur. 

c. The ultima if accented must have the acute. 

7. When the ultima is long, 

a. The antepenult cannot be accented. 

b. The penult if accented must have the acute. 

c. The ultima may have either the acute or the cir- 
cumflex. 



FIRST OR A-DECLENSION. 25 

Nouns of the first and second declensions 
include about seventy-five per cent of the nouns 
in the New Testament. The importance, there- 
fore, of mastering the vocabularies and forms 
thus far given can be easily appreciated. 

58. EXERCISES. 

I. I. β'χ^ομξν βίρήνην καΐ ajaTryv. 2. ακούομςν 
άτΓΟ^ ττ}? ap^fj'i. 3• 0^' ττροφήταί την Βόξαν eyov- 
σιν} 4• η Βίκαίοσννη καΐ η αλήθεια iv τω κόσμω 
εμβνον. 5• ν^ουον την ayyiXou φωνήν. 6. eXeye 
ev 7Γαραβο\αΐ<ζ. y. ο τΓροφήτης eypaφe την ivTO- 
\ην. 8. Tol<i άνθρωτΓοις -χ^αραν βττεμττβτβ. 9• ^'^ 
ττ} άΧηθβία μένομβν. ΙΟ. την σοφίαν ev τταρα- 
βοΧαΐς ζκηρυσσβν. II. ev τη yη καΐ ev τη θαΚ,άσση 
έΒόξαζβ^ τον κυρών. 12. τοί'ζ μαθηταΐς του κυρίου 
ΊΓίστεύουσιν? 

Π. Ι. We remain in the truth. 2. The hour 
is announced. 3. Ye have joy in your^ hearts. 

4. We see the beginning of righteousness. 

5. The way, the truth, and the life. 6. Joy and 
peace, love and glory. 7. They were remaining 
in the synagogue. 8. They speak in parables. 
9. It is taught in the Scriptures. 10. The king- 
dom of God and his ^ righteousness. 

1 Movable v, for which see § 11. 

2 The dative often follows πιστβύω, where our believe requires 
the objective case with in. See lexicon, ^ Use the article, 

■* /) om. 



20 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

LESSON X. 
Adjectives of the Vowel Declensions. 

59. vocabulary. 

άγαττητόβ, beloved. κακόβ, enil. 

όίλλο§, other. καλ05, good. 

αΙώνΐ08, eternal; cf. AEON. ^tVos, middle. 

δίκαιοδ, rig/iteous. μόνο$, only, alone, MONO- 

iKeivos, that one. theism. 

erepos, another. ovtos, this one. 

« (τχατο?, last. ttio-tos, faitJtful. 

ϊδιο5, onc''s own., IDIOM. ιτρώτοβ, first. 

60. Learn the declension of καΧός, good, ϊ8ίος, 
one s οζυη, and μικρός, small, little, § 25. 

Observe that the masc. and neut. are in the 
second declension, while the fem. is in the first 
declension. 

61. Note that when l or ρ precedes the final 
vowel of the stem, as in ϊ'δίο? and μικρός, the 
fem. has ά in the nom. sing. Cf. 53, i. 

62. οντος, tJiis one, and εκβαος, that one, are 
demonstrative pronouns, but are declined for 
the most part as adjectives in -o<?. 

a. ούτοξ refers to somebody or something near at hand 
or present, while εκείνο? refers to that which is more remote 
— at a distance. 



ADJECTIVES OF THE VOWEL DECLENSIONS. 27 

63. Learn the paradigm of ovro<i, § 26. 
Observe : i. The rough breathing of the nom. 

masc. and fem. sing, and plur. appears in all other 
forms as r. 2. The vowel of the penult varies 
as the vowel in the ultima. 3. The accent 
remains on the penult. 

64. All substantives used with οΰτος and 
€Κ€Ϊνος must have the article ; e.^•. οδτο? 6 άνθρω- 
τΓος or 6 άνθρωτΓος οντος, tJiis man. Observe 
that the pronoun must come before the article 
or after the nom. This is called the predicate 
position. Any other position of an adj. would 
be the attributive position. 

65. EXERCISES. 

I. I. Ύ] Ισγάττι ημίρα. 2. ούτος 6 Χό'γος. 
3- iv τω οϊκω βκβίνω. φ οί Βίκαιοί καΐ οι κακοί 
κρίνονται. 5• τταίΒια, €σ^άτη ωρα εστίν. 6. η 
^ντοΧη ζωη αίώνώς^ έστιν (is), y. οι καΧοΙ μόνοι 
σώζονται. 8. αΰτη έστΙ ήττρώτη καΐ μβ'γάΧη ^ 
έντοΧή. 9• €Κ€Ϊνος δίκαιος βστιν. ΙΟ. οι άΧΧοι 
τους νόμους έδίδασκον. 1 1, iv βκείναις ταΐς ημε- 
ραις κακοί ττροφήται ήκούοντο. 

Π. Ι. The first, last; and the last, first. 
2. That disciple knows the Scriptures. 3. In 

^ An adj. that has the masc. and fem. alike. Such are called 
adjs. of two endings. - Great, 



28 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

the last day. 4. His own (use art. for Jiis) 
know the truth. 5. These children are saved. 
6. This is the work of God. 7. This command- 
ment I write to the brethren. 8. Beloved, we 
have another promise. 9. On the first day he 
preached in the synagogue. 10. This one knows 
the law and the prophets. 



LESSON XL 
Personal Pronouns and άμ.ί, I am. 

66. vocabulary. 

!ί^ΙοΆό%^ good. €ls, prep., i7ito (with ace). 

αγιο$, holy. oXos, whole. 

άλλα, conj., but. on, conj., because, that. 

avTOs, he, hifnself. ov,^ "i 

■^άρ,'^ con], for. οΰκ, 'r not. 

δ€,^ conj., moreover, but. ούχ, 1 

«γώ, /. ΐΓθνηρ08, wicked. 

€ΐμ(, I am. <ri, thou, you. 

Each of the words in this vocabulary, except 
the adjectives, occurs more than 1000 times in 
the New Testament. 

1 Words that cannot come first in a sentence are called post- 
positives, yap and 5i are such. 

2 ού before consonants ; ουκ before vowels j ούχ before the 
rough breathing. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 29 

67. The personal pronouns in Greek are : 
€γώ, // συ, tJiou ; and αυτό^, αύτη, αυτό, /le, 
she, it. 

68. Learn the declension of εγώ and σύ, § 40. 
Observe: i. That the short forms of εγώ in 

the sing, have no accent. These are enclitics?• 
The meaning of the dissyllabic forms does not 
differ from the monosyllabic. The former are 
more emphatic. 

2. The endings -ου, -οι = ω, and -ων, -ας are 
common with the endings of the two declen- 
sions. Associate the meaning of ύμβΐς with its 
initial vowel. 

69. Learn the declension of αυτός, § 26, a. 
Observe that, except in the forms αυτός, 

αυτή, sing., and αυτοί, αύται, plur., we have the 
declension of the article ό with the prefix αυ-. 

70. Observe the following for the uses of 
αύτος : 

I. αύτος ό άνθρωττος or ό ανθρωττος αυτός, the 
man himself, αυτός is in the predicate posi- 
tion, 64. 

1 An enclitic gives up its accent for the preceding word. If 
the preceding word has the ( ' ) on the antepenult or the (" ) on 
the penult, it receives an additional accent on the ultima; e.g. 
Ιμάτών μου, my garment, oi/cos μου, my house. What is the dif- 
ference between an enclitic and a proclitic ? 



^O ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

71. I. ό avTos άνθρωτΓος, the same man. 
When the article precedes αύτό<ί, the meaning 
is always the same. 

2. When used alone, as κρίνουσιν αυτόν, they 
judge him, it is the simple personal pronoun of 
the third person. 

72. The use of conjunctions and prepositions 
is an important thing in inflected languages. 

1. καΐ is the ordinary copulative conjunction, 
joining words, phrases, and clauses. 

2. δε is an adversative, but, in a mild way. 
It often has little meaning beyond and, indeed. 

3. αλλά is the strongest adversative, a very 
emphatic but. 

4. γαρ expresses a reason, as kcu ηαρ ακουονσι 
means and (I say this) for they are listening. 

5. et«?, i}ito, always occurs with the accusa- 
tive, and denotes motion, either expressed or 
implied. 

73. We noticed that the primary active end- 
ing -μι, as in άκού-ο-μι, was dropped, and the 
preceding was lengthened to ω. There are 
some verbs that do not drop this μι, and that 
do not have the variable vowel %. Verbs that 
drop the μι belong to the ω -conjugation, and 
verbs that do not drop the μι belong to the 
/ii-conjugation. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 3I 

These make up what are called the ω -conju- 
gation and the /it-con jugation. Of the latter is 
€ΐμί, I am. The following is the pres. ind. : 

Sin^. ίΐμί, I am. Plur. «σμί'ν, we are. 

il, iJioti art. ka-ri, ye are. 

€<Γτ£, he., she., or // is. «ίσ-ί, they are. 

a. εΙμί is fov ΐσ-μί ; ei is for εσ-σι ; εΐσι for εσνσι'. The 
root εσ- may be compared with is. 

b. All the forms in the pres. ind. of this verb, except ei, 
are encHtic, 68, i, note. 

74. EXERCISES. 

I. I. βγω hk elyuL. 2. συ <yap el ev τω Ιβρω. 
3• αύτον Be €κρίνομ€ν. 4. αύτοΙ ημeί<; ου κρινό- 
μεθα. 5• τοΰτό kan το epyov του deod. 6. άλλα 
ου λόγοί? ύ/Λ€(9 σώζeσθe. /• ^^ αυτω 8e ζω η 
αΙώνιός €στιν. 8. ύμ€Ϊ'ί Ιστβ τα τέκνα του Oeoi). 
9. ο προφήτη'; el συ. ΙΟ. καΐ J^.c^/ei αύτω 6 Ιησούς. 
II. η άλί /^eia ουκ ίστίν ev ημίν. 12. 7Γlστeύeτe 
■yap οτί εγω elμί. 1 3• εγώ eίμt η οΒος καΐ ή άΧήθεια 
καΐ ή ζωή. 14. σάββατον he έστιν ev eKeivr) τη 
ημέρα. 

II. Ι. But you know me. 2. I glorify Him. 
3. Moreover, we speak the trutl•. 4. Ye are in 
the world. 5. Darkness ^ is not in Him. 6. And 
these things we write to you. 7. Jesus himself 
was not baptizing, but his disciples. 8. Beloved, 



32 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

we are the children of God. 9. He hears my 
words and does not do them. 10. And this is 
the witness of him. 11. He himself is the life. 
12. On (ev) the same day he was speaking to 
the people. 13. Thou art the son of God. 



LESSON XII. 
Deponent Verbs. 

75. vocabulary. 

απέρχομαι, go away. «ξΐ'ρχομαι, go out. 

άίΓοκρίνομαι, answer. €ρ\ομαι, come, go. 

■γίνομαι, be, become. ην, was. 

%\.ίρ\ο\ί.α,ι, go through. ,οίδα, I know. 

δύναμαι, a/n able, can. • os, who. 

€ΐσ-φ\ομαι, enter. ΐΓορ€νομαι, go. 
Ίτροσίρχβμαι, come to. 

76. Deponent verbs have the form of the 
middle, § 47, or the passive, but the sense of 
the active. 

77. Note in the vocabulary above that there 
are many verbs that are composed of 'έρχομαι + 
something. These are compound verbs ; and 
the forms άττο, azvay, δίά, through, βίς, into, e/c, 
out of, 7Γ/309, to, are prepositions. In this verb 
of motion the preposition, it will be seen, gives 



DEPONENT VERBS. 33 

the direction to the motion. So in most verbs 
compounded with prepositions, the idea of the 
verb is only modified by the preposition. 

When the preposition ends in a vowel, as 
άτΓο, δίά, the final vowel is dropped before a 
verb that begins with a vowel ; e.g. δύρχομαι 
is for Bta + βρ-χομαι.^ 

78. The imperfect indicative of et'/ii, am, is as 

follows : 

Sing. Plur. 

1. ην (ήμην), I ivas. I. ημίν (ημίθα), we were. 

2. Ύ[% {r\<!T^'x), thou wert. 2. ητ€, ye were. 

3. ην, he was. 3. ησ-αν, they were. 

a. The forms in parentheses need not be learned at 
present, as they occur but seldom. Ύ]μψ•, i6 times ; ■ημ€θα, 
3 times ; ησθα, twice. 

79. οΐ8α, I know, is an irregular verb, but 
conjugated in one tense regularly, as follows : 

Sing. Plur. 

1 . οΐδα, / know, etc. i . οΐδαμεν, we know, etc. 

2. οΐδας 2. οϊδατ€ 

3. οΐδί 3- οΐδασ-ι 

80. Learn the paradigm of 09, ^, o, § 27. 
This pronoun it will be noticed is declined 

like the article, except initial τ and the nomina- 
tive forms 09, r]-, o, a. 

^ On the same principle, when these compound verbs receive 
the augment the final vowel of the preposition is dropped; e.g. 
αποστέλλω, I send, απέστελλαν, 1 7vas sending. The prepositions 
περί and ττρό retain their final vowel. Cf. note, p. 58. 
D 



34 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

81. EXERCISES. 

I. I. νμ€Ϊς ουκ οϊ8ατ€ αυτόν. 2. €ρ'χ^€ταί 6 
Φι'λίΤΓΤΓΟ'? καΐ Xeyet τω 'AvSpea. 3• ^'^ "^Φ κόσμω 
ην και 6 κόσμος αύτον ουκ ΙΧάμβανεν. 4• V ^ντοΧη 
βστιν 6 λόγος ον άκούετβ. 5• V ^Ρ^ '^ΡΧ^'^^'" 
6. ου Ύράφω νμΐν ότι ουκ οϊΒατβ την aXtidecav 
άΧΧα οτί οϊΒατβ αυτήν. "J. ο ακούω άττ άρχΐ]<; 
<γίνώσκω. 8. καΐ αύτη €στϊν ή CTrayyeXla ην 
αύτος ετταγγελλετα^.^ 9- '^^^ οΐ8ας Ότι ή αμαρτία 
iv αύτω ουκ εστίν. ΙΟ. εγώ δε τον νόμον οΊΒα. 
II. ό 0€ καιρός "^ €στίν iv α την εξουσίαν Χαμβά- 
νομ€ν. 12. τις yap ουκ ol8e Οτι η εσχ^άτη ήμερα 
έρχεται ; ^ 

Π. Ι. We know that we are saved. 2. Ye 
enter the synagogue. 3. They are becoming 
the children of God. 4. In the beginning was 
the Word. 5. The Word was with (ττρός, ace.) 
God. 6. The truth, moreover, is glorified in 
Him. 7. I know that His commandment is life 
everlasting. 8. What I say ^o you was from 
the beginning. 9. The life which we live is 
eternal. 10. On that day was the Sabbath. 
II. Whom He knows the world does not 
know. 

1 ^7Γα77 Αλομαί, I atinouiice. 

2 See § 14 for the punctuation in Greek. 

3 Time. 



PRESENT ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE AND INFINITIVE. 35 



LESSON XIII. 
Present Active Subjunctive and Infinitive. 



82. 



vocabulary. 



αϊρω, take away. 

αμήν, verily. 

άίΓοθνήσκω, die. 

άίΓΟίττίλλω, send. 

yi, indeed, at least, 

δί'χομαι, receive. 

διά, prep, with gen., through ; 

with ace, OH account of. 
€l, conj., if. 

tK, prep, with gen., out of, of. 
€Ti, adv., still, yet. 

ir«s, adv 



η8η, adv., now, already. 
ϊνα, conj., in order that. 
μίτά, prep, with gen., with ; 

with ace, after. 
μή, not. 

vvv, adv., now. 
ovirw, adv., not yet. 
ιταρακαλέω, beseech. 
■ΐΓίρί, prep, with gen., 

co7icerning ; with ace, 

around. 
, how. 



83. The terms primary and secojidary apply 
to the tenses of the indicative only. 

The subjunctive mood, as in English, denotes 
a doubt or a contingency. Unlike the English, 
however, the subjunctive in Greek is very 
common. There are but two tenses that are 
usually found, the present and the aorist. The 
perfect is very rare. 



84. The pres. subjv. act. of λύω is : 

Sing. I . λύ-ω Plur. I . λύ-ω-μ€ν 

2. λύ-η-τί 



λύ-ω 



3• λν-τ| 



3. λύ-ω-σι 



36 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

85. The pres. subjv. of ειμί is : 
Sing. 



I. 


<o 


Plur. 


I. 


«-μ.€ν 


2. 

3• 


i 




•-> 

3• 


η-τί 



86. Note that the pres. subjv. of el^i is the 
same as the personal endings of the regular 
verb ; and while the indicative has the variable 
vowel %, the subjunctive has the corresponding 
long vowel %. 

a. The personal endings are those of the primary 
active indicative. 

87. The subjunctive follows Xva, in order that. 
Examine the following : 

€ρχ€ταί Lva άκονρ, he comes that he may hear, 
ττιστίνομίν lva. μη αμαρτάνωμεν, we believe in order that 
we may tiot sin. 

88. Rule of syntax: Clauses of purpose take 
the subjunctive with Xva. The negative is μη. 

89. The following forms illustrate the present 
active infinitive : 

λυ-€ΐν, άκού-£ΐν, *χ-*'•ν, μίν-ίΐν, 

to loose. to hear. to have. to abide. 

-etv = e -\- ending -ev of pres. inf. For -eeu 
contracting to -ety, see § 6, 7. 



PRESENT ACTIVE SUBJUNCTIVE AND INFINITIVE. 37 

90. The participle is very common in Greek, 
and it is necessary to master its uses as soon as 
possible, -ων is the ending of the pres. act. nom. 
masc. sing. ; e.g. : 

δ λέγων, the one saying, he who says. 

6 oLpwv, the one takmg away, he who takes away. 

ο aKovuiv, the one hearing, he who hears. 

The article and participle in this use are equiva- 
lent, as is seen, to a dependent clause in English. 

. 91. EXERCISES. 

I. I. ούτος €ρ-)(βται ϊνα \eyr) irepl τή<ί αλη- 
θβίας. 2. άμην, άμην λέγω ύμΐν οτί r) ώρα οΰττω 
iaTLV; 3• ^έχ^ταί ημάς ίνα en ζω μεν .^ 4• ττώς 
rye ΒύναταΙ σώζβιν ; 5• Ι^^'^οΐ' ταύτα αύτοίς \eyei. 
6. τας αμαρτίας ημών a'ipei. /• ^'^ "^^^ θανάτου 
€ΐ<? την ζωην έ^ειρόμέθα. 8. ό μ4νων ev αύτω e^ei 
ζωην αΐώνίον. g. ό αγαττων^ τον αδελφοί αύτοΰ 
ev TTj ayairr] μ4ν€ί. ΙΟ. εγώ δέ 'έρχομαι, ίνα τον 
κόσμον σώζω. 

Π. Ι. They baptize in order that they may 
glorify God. 2. Already we become the chil- 
dren of Him. 3. Ye are able to know the 
truth. 4. How can He take away our sins .-' 
5. Through Him they are saved and have eter- 
nal life. 6. After these things they go away 

1 For ξ'άωμΐν, § 5, 2. 



38 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK, 

into the desert. 7. He comes that He may 
save sinners (ayLiapTwXof). 8. I am willing to 
hear the Gospel. 9. Verily, verily the one lov- 
ing his brother is not a servant. 10. Ye are 
not able to hear my word. 11. That one was 
from the beginningf and tiuth is in Him. 



LESSON XIV. 
Present Passive SaBjuNcrrv-E and Infinitive. 

92. VOCABULARY. 

άμα, adv., at the same time. η, conj., or. 

αντί, prep, with gen., instead καθώ?. 2La\'.,Just as. 

of. Kaivos, new. 

άιτό, prep, with gen., from. Xoiiros, remaining. 

άσ-ττάζομαι, salute. ovv, adv., therefore. 

δαιμόνιον, DEMON. irpos, prep, with acc, tOf 
ίάν, conj., if. toward. 

tvayytXiov, gospel. ιτροσ-κννέω, worship. 

ivpLvKut.fnd. τηρ€ω, keep. 

93. The pres. pass, subjv. of λι;ω is : 

Sing. I. λν-ω-μαι Plicr. I. λυ-ώ-μίθα 

2. λύ-τ) 2. λύ-η (τθί 

3- λν-η-ται 3• λΐ-ω-νται 

94. Observe: ι. The long vowel "/^, as in 
the active. 2. The personal endings are the 
pass, primary endings of the indicative. 3. -97 
of 2 per. sing, is for -ησαι. 



PRESENT PASSIVE SUBJUNCTIVE AND INFINITIVE. 39 

95. The subjunctive is used in exliortation. 
Examine the follov^^ing : 

ενρίσκωμεν την άληθααν, let us fijidthe truth. 

μ.Ύ] άγώμίθα ets την αμαρτίαν, let us not be led in sin. 

96. Rule of syntax : TJie first person plural 
{of the subjunctive) may be used to express an 
exhortation. The negative is μή. 

97. Examine the following : 

tav κρίνω δε εγώ, if /, moreover. Judge. 

iav μη λε'γω/χεν την άληθΐίαν, if ive say not the truth. 

Rule of syntax : The subjunctive follows lav 
[=if)\ the negative is μή. Cf. § 124. 

98. The pres. pass. inf. may be seen in the 
following verbs : 

λν-€-σθαι, άκού-€-σθαι, κρίν-ε-σθαι, 

to be destroyed. to be heard. to be judged. 

What is the pres. pass. inf. ending .'' 

99. Examine the following : 

ό κρίν-ό-μενοζ, the one being jjidged. 
6 άκον-ο-μενο<;, the one bei::g heard. 

This ending -μβνος is the passive participle end- 
ing in nom. masc. sing, as -ων is in the active. 
The ending -o? is declined like «αλό?, § 25. 



40 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

What was said in 90 about the sense of the 
active participle applies equally to the passive. 

100. EXERCISES. 

I. I. άστταζώμβθα tol"? αδελφού?. 2. καθω% 
€Κ€ίνος δίκαιος iariv ωμεν Βίκαιοι, ήμ€Ϊ<;. 3• ^^ 
τω μέσω έκι^ρυασβ λεγωι/ ότι βργβταί βίς τα ϊΒια. 
4- μένετε ev εμοί καΐ εγώ εν ύμΐν. 5• ^7^^ ^^^^ ^^V•*• 
μόνος ότι αυτός μετ εμού εστίν. 6. βΧεττεί τον 
κύριον ερχόμενον ττρός αυτόν καΐ λεγεί αύτω 
Ουτός εστίν 6 α'ίρων τάς αμαρτίας του κόσμου. 
7- €1 ύμεΐς μένετε εν τω λόγω εμού, μαθηταί μου 
έστε καΐ 'γινώσκετε την αΚήθειαν. 8. εαν δε 
κρίνω εγώ, την άΧηθειαν κρίνω. 9• ^^^ ^Ί^ 
Βοξάζω εμαυτόν (myself), ή Βόξα μου ούδεν 
{nothing) εστίν. 

Π. Ι. Let US keep this commandment. 2. Let 
us receive the truth. 3. If, therefore, we are the 
children of God, let us do His works. 4. Let us 
believe that through Him we have eternal life. 

5. They were willing to receive the Gospel. 

6. He who believes is saved and has eternal 
life. 7. Let us not speak concerning these 
things. 8. A new commandment write I unto 
you. 9. If we say that we have not sin, the 
truth is not in us. 10. He preaches the Gospel 
of the kingdom of God. 



THIRD DECLENSION. 41 

LESSON XV. 
Third Declension: Neuter Nouns in a. ■ 

101. VOCABULARY. 

αίμα, TO, blood; cf. hemor- στόμα, τό, mouth. 

RHAGE. σ-ώμα, τό, body. 

θέλημα, τό, will. νΰ|,^ η, night. 

όνομα, τό, name ; cf. ΝΟΜΙ- irovs, ο, /oot. 

NATE. Ίτΰρ, τό, ^re, vxKOtechnics. 

πνεΰμα, τό, Spirit. «τάρξ, η, flesh. 

ρήμα, τό, word; cf. RHETORIC, φώϊ, τό, ligJit, VHOTOgraphy. 

σ-ΐΓ£'ρμα, τό, seed. χείρ, ή, hand, CHiKOgraphy. 

102. The third declension is ordinarily called 
the consonant declension from the fact that the 
stem of the nouns usually ends in a consonant. 
A few nouns, as we shall see later, end in a 
close vowel, t or v, or in"the diphthong ev. 

103. It is necessary in declining a noun of 
this declension to have the stem. This is deter- 
mined by dropping the genitive ending -09• 

104. The nominative is formed from the stem 
in various ways. The nominative, therefore, is 
not easily determined till we know the genitive. 

1 These monosyllables have peculiaiities of form which will 
be explained later. The frequency of their occurrence is the 
reason for introducing them thus early. 



42 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

105. The declension of όνομα, name, is as 

follows : 

Sing. Plur. 

N. A. V. όνομα Ν. Α. V. ονόματα 

G. όνόματο8 G. ονομάτων 

D. ονόματι D. όνόμαοΊ. 

106. Observe the following : 

1. The genitive ending is -09. 

2. The dative ends in -l, as in the first and 
second declensions. Here, however, it does not 
appear as iota-siibscript, but is written in the 
line. 

3. In the plur. a is the same as in the 
O-declension, so likewise -ων. 

4. The dat. plur. ends in -σι, with which 
compare -t? of the A- and 0-declensions. τ of 
the stem drops before -σι. 

5- The stem is ονοματ-. The nominative is 
the mere stem, final τ being dropped.^ 

107. Learn the declension of ννξ, night, § 28. 

108. Rule of accent : Monosyllables of the 
consojiant declension accent the tiltima in all 
genitives and datives, -ων of the genitive plural 
is circiDnflexed. 

1 The only single consonants that can stand at the close of a 
word in Greek are v., p, s. A", '^ther letters which would occur 
here are dropped. 



THIRD DECLENSION CONTINUED. 43 

109. EXERCISES. 

I. I. τα ρήματα ^ω/}? αΐωνίον βχ^ει,ς. 2. όνομα 
ην αυτω Ίωάνη'ζ. 3• τοΰτό εστί το σώμα μου. 
4- Ύΐνώσκεις το θβΧημα του θβοΰ. 5• ί^^'λ^τε ayeiv 
βφ {against) ημάς το αίμα του άνθρώττου τούτου ; 

6. ουτό<ί έστίν ό βατττίζων iv ττνβύματί αγι'ω. /. η 
νυξ €ρχ^£ταί. 8. σττέρμα 'Αβραάμ εσμεν. g. 6 
λόγο? σαρξ iyeveTO {became). ΙΟ. ου το βίσβργ^ό- 
μβνον eh το στόμα κοινοί {defiles) άνθρωττον άλλα 
το βξβρ-χόμβνον έκ του στόματος τούτο κοινοί 
άνθρωττον. II. ύμβΐς €στ6 το φως του κόσμου. 
12. el δε ή χ^ίρ σου η ό ττούς σου σκαν8α\ίζει 
{offend) σ€ βκκοψον {cutoff) αυτόν. ij. το φως 
iv Trj σκοτία φαίνει. 

Π. Ι. They believe on (ei?) His name. 2. He 
baptizes you, moreover, in the holy spirit. 3. He 
is able to save by {ev) night and day. 4. Let us 
believe on the name of the Lord. 5. The word 
becomes flesh. 6. These are the good seed. 

7. This is the will of God. 8. He speaks 
through the mouth of God. 9. The bread of 
life is my flesh. 10. Verily, verily I say to you, 
he who believes on His name has eternal life. 



44 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

LESSON XVL 
Third Declension : Stems in -i and -ep. 

110. VOCABULARY. 

άνήρ, ό, man. ktCo-is, η, creation. 

άνάσ•τα<Γΐ9, η, resurrection, μήτηρ, η, mother. 

γνώσ -Ls, ή, knowledge. τταράκλησ-ιβ, η, exhortation, 

δύναμΐ8, η, power, DYNA- ιτατήρ, ό, father. 

ΜΙΤΕ. irio-Tis, ή, faith. 

θλίψΐξ, η, tribulation. iroXis, η, Qty. 

κρίσ -is, ή, judgment. (τυνίίδησ-ιβ, η, conscience. 

111. Above are given the most common nouns 
in the New Testament in -t?, stem in -l. They 
are declined as follows : 







iroXis, 


city. 








Sing. 


Stem τΓολι-. 




Plur. 


N. 


iroXis 




Ν, 


. V. 


iroXiis 


G. 


iroXcws 






G. 


'Π•όλ€ων 


D. 


ιτόλίΐ 






D. 


ιτόλίσι 


A. 


-ιτόλιν 






A. 


■iroXeis 


V. 


ιτόλι 











112. The following is to be noted regarding 
the declension of this class of nouns : 

I. e takes the place of the final stem vowel ι 
in all cases except the nom., ace, and voc. sing. 



THIRD DECLENSION CONTINUED. 45 

2. The gen. sing, has -ω?, not -09. 

3. The accent in gen. sing, and plur. is irregu- 
lar, and here the acute accent is found on the 
antepenult when the ultima is long. 

4. e unites with ι of the dat. sing., and forms 
a diphthong ei. 

5. The ace. sing, adds simply -v to the stem.* 

6. In the vocative the mere stem occurs. 

7. The nom. plur. -et<? is for ee<>, § 6, 7. 

113. Learn the declension of ττατήρ, § 33, 
and a. 

Observe the following : 

1. The nominative ends in -ηρ, while the 
stem ends in -ep. 

2. The gen. and dat. sing, drop this e of the 
stem, and take the accent on the last syl- 
lable. 

3. Voc. sing, has recessive accent (3, ύ, i). 

4. The dat. plur. has ap for ep. 

114. Learn avyip, man, § 33. Note that when- 
ever ep of the stem would be followed by a vowel, 
δ takes the place of the e. The same peculiari- 
ties of accent obtain as in ττατήρ, but -ων of the 
gen. plur. is circumflexed. 



46 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

115. EXERCISES. 

I. I. εγώ βΐμ,ι η άνάστασις καΐ η ζοίή. 2. η 
ΤΓίστίς σου σώζβί σε. 3• ^^ "^ίί ^ννάμβι του ττνβύ- 
ματος €ίς ΤαλιΧαίαν βΙσέρχ^βΎαι. 4• αυτή he ear lv 
η κρίσις ότι το φως ep^^eTai et9 τον κόσμον. 
5- '^ράφω eir {on) αύτον το όνομα του θεού μου 
και το όνομα της ττόλεως του 9eoi> μου. 6. avSpa 
ου <γινωσκω. /• ^^^ κρίσις βστιν του κόσμου 
τούτου. 8. ημ€Ϊς οϊ8αμ€ν τον ττατέρα καΐ την 
μητέρα, g. ev τω κόσμω ΘΧίψιν e^^ere. ΙΟ. e\e- 
<yov οΰν αύτω ττου {zuhcrc) €στιν 6 ττατήρ σου. 
II. τΓΟίώ τά epya του ττατρός μου. 12. ev τη 
ημέρα της κρίσεως βξομεν {shall have) χαράν καΐ 
ειρήνη ν. 

II. Ι. The faith which we have saves men. 

2. Life is in him who has the spirit of faith. 

3. This is my father and my mother. 4. He 
who does the will of God abides in the truth. 
5. We have power to become the children of 
God. 6. He is the resuriection and the life. 
7. We are raised from the dead on {ev) the day 
of judgment. 8. He who hears my word comes 
not into judgment. 9. In that city he preached 
the Gospel. 10. For those days are tribula- 
tion 



FUTURE INDICATIVE. 47 

LESSON XVII. 

Future Iot)icative. 

116. vocabulary. 

ά$ι.κ€ω, do wrong. νικάω, conquer. 

ά8ικία, η, iinrig/iteousness. ομολογίω, confess. 

άδικο?, η, ov, iinrtgkteons. ircpiiraTiw, walk. 

άναβλίΐτω, look up. συνάγω, gather together. 

άρνί'ομαι, deny. νττάγω, go away. 

άρχομαι, begin. ψαν€ρόω, }nake niantfest. 

θαυμάζω, wonder at., marvel. ψοβ€ομαι, fear. 

μισ-ί'ω, hate. φυλάσο-ω, guard. 

117. The fut. ind., as in English, denotes 
what is going to take place. 

The following is the fut. ind. act. of \νω : 
Sing. Plur. 

1. \ν-σ•-<ύ, / shall loose, I. \ύ-σ•-ο-μίν, we shall loose, 

2. λύ-σ•-€ΐ5 etc. 2. λύ-σ•-6-τ€, etc. 

3. λύ-σ -ei 3. λύ-σ-ου-σι 

118. The fut. ind. mid.^ of λύω is : 

Sing. Plnr. 

1. λύ-σ--ο-μαι I. λυ-<Γ-ό-μίθα 

2. λύ-σ--τ] 2. λύ-σ--€-σ•θ€ 
3- λΰ-ο--£-ται 3• λΰ-σ--ο-νται 

^ For the middle voice, see §§ 47, 48. The middle and pas- 
sive are the same in form, except in the future and the aorist, 
which we shall learn later. 



48 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

119. Observe that the future has primary 
endings, and differs from the present in the use 
of σ, with which compare shall in the English 
future. Note that σ appears before the variable 
vowel %. Hence, while the present is formed 
by adding % to the stem, the future is formed 
by adding σ%. 

Learn the fut. ind. of et//./', § 65. 

120. The future of άδίΛτεω, do wrong, is υΖικψ 
σ-ω ; of νίκάω, conquer, is νικη-σω ; of μισέω, 
hate, is μιση-σω ; of φανβρόω, make manifest, is 
φανβρω-σω. From these forms it can be seen 
that a short final voivel mnst be lengthened before 
σ% of the future, e = η, a = η,^ ο = ω. 

121. The future of αγω, lead, is αξω ; of άρχο- 
μαι, begin, is άρχομαι, ; of φυΧάσσω, guard, stem 
φυΧακ-, φυλάξω. From which it is seen that 
stems in κ, γ, ■χ form with σ%, ξ%. 

122. The future of βΧέπω, see, is βλέψω ; of 
αναστρέφω, turn, is αναστρέψω ; of νίτττω, zvash, 
stem νι,β-, is νίψω. Stems in ττ, β, φ + σ% = 

ψ%. 

123. The future of σώζω, save, stem σωδ-, is 
σώσω \ of ττζίθω, persuade, is ττβίσω. From 
which observe that stems in τ, δ, θ would 

1 But α after e, t, or ρ is not changed to η, but ά. Cf. 53, i. 



FUTURE INDICATIVE. 49 

have simple σ% in the future. The consonant 
drops before the tense sign. 

124. The various forms of future stems may 
be seen by examining the following summary : 

Vowel Stems. Mute^ Steins. 

+ <^/^ - W/^ Palatals, K, y, χ + σ% = ζ% 

, 0/ - 0/ Linguals, τ, ύ, θ -\- σ% = σ% 

Other vowel stems hardly No stems end in the double 
occur. consonants $, ζ, φ, nor in σ- 

The future of liquid stems, λ, μ, ν, ρ, will be 
explained in a future lesson. Aside from stems 
in these four letters, we may now be able to 
form the future of any regular verb in Greek. 

125. EXERCISES. 

I. I. η ττίστί'; σου σώσ€ί σε. 2. 'ypa'^^oD 
ταύτα., τταίδ/α, ΰμΐν. 3• ό κόσμος ημάς μισήσει. 
4- 7Γ€μψω τον υ'ιόν μου τον ά^αττητόν. 5• ούτω 
{thus) και 6 ττατηρ 6 ουράνιος ττοιησβι νμΐν. 6. άκο- 
Χουθίίσω σοι., K.vpie. 7• ά'^αττησεις κνριον τον 
θβον iv ο\τ] καρ8ία σον καΐ iv 6\rj Trj "ψυ^τ) σου 
καΐ €v οΧτ) ττ) Siavoia (luind) σου • αύτη εστίν 
η πρώτη εντοΧη. 8. ομοΧοΎησω αύτοΐς ότι ου 
<γινώσκω υμάς. 9• ^'^ εκεΐντ] ττ} ημέρα εν τω ονό- 

^ See § 2 for the classification of consonants. 



5 ο ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

ματί μου αΐτήσεσθβ, καΐ ου \€yω νμίν ότι εγώ 
ζρωτιίσω τον ττατβρα ττβρί υμών. ΙΟ. οΰτως δε 
eaovrai οι εσχ^ατοί ττρώτοι. 1 1, ττβίσομεν την 
καρδίαν ημών. 12. οΰτως 'έσται καΐ {a/so) iv 
Tat<i ήμέραίς του υΐοΰ του άνθρωπου. 

II. Ι. There shall be tribulations. 2. We shall 
do the truth. 3. He who knoweth the truth 
and doeth it shall live. 4. Ye shall be with ^ 
me this day. 5. They shall hate us because 
we are not of (e/c) the world. 6. We shall love 
the Lord God with all our heart. 7. I shall do 
the will of my father. 8. The son of man shall 
believe on (et?) the word. 9. They shall bear 
witness concerning Him that He is the light. 
10. We shall seek Him. 11. There shall be joy 
in Heaven because he is saved. 12. He shall 
glorify God. 

LESSON XVIII. 

Third Declension : Mute Stems. 

126. vocabulary. 

αΙών, ο, age, .EON. Kaivos, neTV. 

aWoTpios, another's., strange. κρ£μα, τό, judgment. 
βρώμα, τό, food. οίκοδομίω, build Up. 

eX-iris, η, Jiope. irpeo-pvTepos, elder. 

£τοιμο8, ready. σκοτία, η, darkness. 

δουλεύω, be a servant. ψανερό$, manifest. 

X<ipis, η, grace. 
^ μετά with Gen. 



THIRD DECLENSION CONTINUED. 5 I 

127. Observe the following : 

1. ελτη'?, Jiope, stem eXirtS- ; ννξ, night, stem 
ννκτ- ; τΓους, foot, stem ττοδ- ; σαρξ, flesJi, stem 
σαρκ- ; φως, //^///, stem φωτ- ; χάρα, grace, 
stem γμρίτ-. 

2. In all these nouns note that the stem ends 
in a mute (§ 2), and that the nominative is 
formed by adding ? to the stem. For the 
euphonic changes that occur with ς and the 
mutes, see 124. 

128. In αΙων, age, stem αιών- ; η^^βμών, leader, 
stem η^€μον- ; and χειρ, hand, stem χ^ιρ-, we 
have liquid stems which form the nominative 
from the mere stem. A short vowel, as in 
•ηηζμον-, may be lengthened. 

a. άρχων, prince, ruler, has the stem αρχοντ-, but does 
not .add s for the nominative, which is the mere stem with 
τ dropped and ο lengthened to ω. 

129. Learn the declension of χάρις, ελττί?, 
and άρχων, § 28, and αΙών, § 32. 

Ί30. When nouns with stem in τ, δ, or θ pre- 
ceded by t or υ are not accented on the ultima, 
the ace. sing, has v, the mute being dropped ; 
e.g. χάρις, χαριτ-, ace. χάριν ; but έΧττίς, ελττ^δ-, 
has ace. iXiriSa. Cf. 112, 5. 



52 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

131. The voc. sing, is rare and is usually the 
same as the nom. βλττίς, however, has voc. έΧττί. 

132. When -ντ- of the stem would come before 
-σι of the dat. plur., both the letters are dropped 
and the preceding vowel is lengthened (o to ου) ; 
e.g-. άρχων, stem αρχοντ-, dat. plur. άργουσι. 

133. EXERCISES. 

I. I. eupiaK€L<; <y€ χάριν τταρα τω θβω. 2. avrof; 
ianv ev τω φωτι. 3. νυνί^ 8e μ€ν€ί ττί'στίς, ελττ/ς, 
ά'^άττη. 4• i^ere {behold) τάς χείρας μου καϊ τους 
7Γ08ας μου οτι βγω et/xi αυτός. ζ. 6 έσθίων βκ 
τούτου του άρτου ζήσβυ βίς τον αΙώνα. 6. ό ^Ιησούς 
€ρχ€ταί βίς την οΐκίαν του άρχοντος. J. ου <yap 
€στ€ ύτΓΟ νόμον αλλ' υττο χάριν. 8. καΐ 6 έχων 
την ελτΓίδα ταύτην eV* (ηι) αντώ σώζεται, g. 6 
δε 8οΰ\ος ου μίνβι ev ττ) οικία εις τον αιώνα, 6 υΙος 
μένει εις τον αιώνα. ΙΟ. χάριτι^ he θεού ειμί ο είμι. 
1 1, σου εστίν η βασιλεία καϊ η Βύναμις και η 8οξα 
εις τους αιώνας. 12. χάρις ύμΐν και ειρήνη άττο 
θεού ττατρος ημών καϊ Κ.υρίου Ίησοΰ άριστου. 

II. Ι. Truth abides forever. 2. Now have we 
faith and hope. 3. I write these (things) with 
my hand. 4. The light appears in the darkness. 

1 t may be added to adverbs and pronouns to emphasize 
them. The accent in all such cases is upon the t; «r.^. ούχ is 
often ονχί; vvv, νυνί. 2 q^ g 157^ 



THIRD DECLENSION CONCLUDED. 53 

5. We are saved by faith. 6. He who has love 
in his heart has grace. 7. We are not under 
the law, but under grace. 8. By the grace of 
God we are what we are. 9. Behold my hands 
and feet. 

LESSON XIX. 

Third Declension : Neuter Nouns, Stems in- €σ- ; 
Masculine Nouns, Stems in €v-. 

134. vocabulary. 

apxi€p€vs, o, chief priest. Upevs, priest, HiER«;r/y/. 

βασ-ιλενς, ο, king. μελό?, τό, inevtber. 

γ€νο5, τό, race. H-^pos, τό, part. 

γραμιματ€ύ8, ο, scribe. ovs, τό, ear. 

γυνή, wo>nan. -ιτλήθο?, τό, inultitiede. 

i'Gvos, τό, nation. ctkotos, to, darkness. 

4'θο5, τό, custom, ethics. TeXos, τό, end. 

iXeos, TO, pity. νίδωρ, τό, water, KYOKotogy. 

Neuter nouns with the nominative in -09 and 
the stem in -ea form an important class of nouns 
of the third declension. The most common 
examples are given above. 

135. Learn the declension of yevo<;, race (§ 30), 
Observe the following. 

I. In the gen. and dat. sing, the σ of the stem 
is dropped between the two vowels, and <yeveo<i 
contracts into ^βνους. 



54 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

2. In all cases of the plur. the σ of the stem 
is dropped ; jevea, ηβνέων are contracted to ηένη^ 
•yevodv ; see §§ 5, 8 and 6, 6. 

136. Learn the declension of βασίλ€ν<;, king 
(§ 31), with which compare the vowel stem 
of ττόΧις. 

137. For some irregular nouns of the third 
declension, as ryvvi), wovian, θρίξ, Jiair^ ους, car, 
τΓονς, foot, ν8ωρ, waicr, χβίρ Jiand, see § 34. 
Only such forms are given as occur in the New 
Testament. 

138. EXERCISES. 

I. I. άλλ' οΰττω το τ€\ος earlv. 2. συ el 
βασιλβνς ΊουΒαίων. 3• "^^ evayyeXiov ο κηρύσσω 
ev TOL<i 'έθνβσι. 4• ou/c e^ei? μβρος μ€τ εμού. 
5- οι Be άρχ^ίβρβΐς καΐ οι πρεσβύτεροι εττεισαν 
{persuaded) τού<{ οχΧονζ. 6. εΙς τα έθνη ττορευό- 
μεθα. /. ουκ εχομεν βασιΧεα. 8. εν ενί {οη^ 
σώματι ττοΧΚα ^ μεΧη εγ^ομεν. g. χάρις άττο Ίησοΰ 
άριστου, ό άρχων των βασιΧεων της 'γης. ΙΟ. και 
ετταισε {^striick^ τον του αρχιερεως ΒοΰΧον • ην 8ε 
όνομα τα 8ούΧω Μαλχος•. ΐΐ. εμεΧΧεν Ιησούς 
άτΓοθνήσκειν ύττερ (^for^ τού έθνους και ούχ ύττερ 
τού έθνους μόνον. 12. χάρις, εΧεος, ειρήνη άττό 
θεού Ίτατρος και Χριστού Ιησού τού Ινυρίου ημών. 
1 Ji/a;i_}'. 



FIRST AND SECOND AORIST INDICATIVE. 55 

II. I. Ye are not in the darkness. 2. This 
one is the king of the Jews. 3. For we know 
in (e/f) part. 4. The scribes and the chief 
priests will say this. 5. They know that he 
is not the king of this world. 6. A great 
multitude will follow him (dat.). 7. We have 
a part in the kingdom of God. 8. I say to 
you brethren that the end is not yet. 9. We 
shall make him king. 

LESSON XX. 

First and Second Aorist Indicative, 

139. vocabulary. 

αγιάζω, sanctify. άττέθανον, / died. 

δοκ€ω, seem, think. έ'βαλον, I threw. 

θβάομαι, behold. €γ€νόμην, I became. 

καθαρίζω, purify. elSov, /saw. 

καταβαίνω, go down. etirov, I said. 

όράω, see. «υρον, I fomid. 

ΐΓαραλαμβάνω, receive. ηλθον, / went or came. 

τυφλόω, blind. παρίλαβον, I received. 

140. The aorist is the most common tense in 
Greek to represent what has taken place. Thus, 
/ loosed, I did loose, or / Jiave loosed would most 
likely be expressed in Greek by one word, e -λυ-σα, 
the aor. ind. act. of λύω. 



56 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

141. The aorist indicative of λύω is : 

ACTIVE. MIDDLE. 

Sing. I . έ'-λυ-σ-α Ι-λυ-σά-μην 

2 . € -λυ-<Γα-5 €-λύ-(Γω ( for ί-λύ-σα-σο) 

3- 4'-λν-<Γ€ ί-λύ-σα-το 

Plur. Ι. €-λν-<Γα-μ€ν €-λυ-(Γά-μ€θα 

2. €-λύ-σ-α-τ6 €-λύ-σ•α-σ-θί 

3- €-λν-(Γα-ν Ι-λν-σα-ντο 

α. In 2 pers. sing. ind. mid. σ drops between the two 
vowels α ο, and tiiese contract to ω, § 5, i . 

142. Observe the following on the formation 
of the aorist : 

1. The augment as in the imperfect. 

2. The tense suffi.x is σα, which changes to 
σε in 3 per. sing. act. 

3. The personal endings are secondary, ν of 
I per. sing. act. is dropped. 

143. Compare the suffix σα with d or ed in 

the past tense in English ; e.g. : 

ί-λυ-σα-β «-ΐΓληρύ-σ-α-μίν 

loose-d-you fill - ed-we 

144. The same principles of augment are 
found in the aor. ind. as in the imperf. ind., 36, 
and the same euphonic changes with σα of the 
aor. as with σ% of the fut., 120-124. 



FIRST AND SECOND AORIST INDICATIVE. 57 

145. Not all verbs have the aorist in σα, which 
is called the first aorist, but form the tense on 
the simple stem of the verb by the use of the 
variable vowel %. This is called the second 
aorist. 

146. The 2 aor. ind. of βάΧλω, tJirow, theme 
or stem βαΚ-, is : 

ACTIVE. MIDDLE. 

Sing. I. έ'-βαλ-ο-ν t -βαλ-ό-μην 

2. ί-βαλ -e-s ί-βάλ-ου ( for €-βάλ-€-σο) 

3• €'-βαλ-€ €-βάλ-£-ΤΟ 

Phir. I. €-βάλ-ο-μ£ν ί-βαλ-ό-μ£θα 

2. €-βάλ-£-Τ£ £-βάλ-£-σ•θ£ 

3- £-βαλ-ο-ν ί-βάλ-0 -vro 

α. Note that the only difference in form between the 
2 aor. and the imperf. of the same verb is a difference in 
stem; e.g. t -βαΧΚ-ον, imperf., has the pres. stem βαλλ-, 
while ί-βαλ-ον, 2 aor., has the simple stem or theme, 

147. Few verbs have both aorists. There is 
no difference whatever in meaning between a 
first aorist and a second aorist. 

148. The following 2 aor. are given in the 
vocabulary : άττοθνήσκω, theme θαν-, 2 aor. άττε- 
θανον ; <γίνομαι, theme yev-, 2 aor. ζ'^ενόμην ; 
οράω, theme c8-, 2 aor. ei8ov ; βύρίσκω, theme 
€up-, 2 aor. eupop ; έρχομαι, theme €λθ-, 2 aor. 



58 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

ηλθον ; τταράλαμβάνω, theme λα/8-, 2 aor. irape- 
λαβον ; βΊτΓορ has no present. 

Note tJiat the second aorist has the simple 
theme of the verb and the %. 

149. The difference in form between a first 
aorist and a second aorist may be illustrated by 
the following : 

1. άγα-π-άω, love .... I aor. η-γαττή-σ-α-μίν, lovc-d-we 

2. λαλί'ω, talk I aor. «-λάλη-σ-α-ν, talk-ed-they 

3. βάλλω, throw ... 2 aor. €-βάλ-ο-μ€ν, t/irew-we 

4. λαμβάνω, /iZ/('(? ... 2 aor. έ'-λαβ-ο-ν, took-they 

In I and 2 the past tense in both the Greek 
and the English is formed by adding some- 
thing, — σα, and d or ed. 

In 3 and 4 no suffix is found, but the change 
is in the stem of the verb. βαλΧ-, throw, βαΧ-, 
threw ; Χαμβάνω, take, Χαβ, took. 

150. EXERCISES. 

I. I. καθώς €Κ€Ϊνος τΓβρίζττάτησεν.^ 2. eypayfra 
υμ,Ιν, τταιΒία.) οτί <γινώσκβτ€ το;• ττατβρα. 3• ν'^ού- 
σατ€ ΟΤΙ ή βσ-χάτη ώρα βρ-χβται. 4• '^<^'' ο^/^ οίδε 
ΊΓου {where) vTrayei otl ή σκοτία έτύφΧωσε τους 
οφθαΧμούς αΰτοΰ. ζ. et? τα I'Sia ηΧθβν καΐ οι 
iSiOi αυτόν ου τταρέΧαβον. 6. αύτος rj'ya'jrrjaev 
ημάς. /. δ ΐθεασάμβθα άτταγγβΧΧομβν καΐ υμΐν. 

1 irepi and irpo do not drop the final vowel before the augment. 



FIRST AND SECOND AORIST SUBJUNCTIVE. 59 

S. Trepl yap €μοΰ βκβΐνο^ eypayfrev. 9. eOeaaavro 
a βτΓοίησβν καΐ Ιττίστβυσαυ ei•? αυτόν. ΙΟ. άρισ- 
τοι; ύτΓβρ ημο)ν άττζθανεν. II. οΰτός βστιν virep 
ου βίτΓον. 12. ev τω κόσμω ην καΐ ό κόσμος δί' 
αυτού eyeveTO. 13. ή ^υνη elirev Ουκ έχω 
άν8ρα. Ιφ καΐ ev τω αΚΧοτρίω ιτιστοί ουκ 
eyeveaOe. 

II. Ι. They asked him. 2. They went and 
saw where {irov) he was abiding. 3. The word 
became flesh. 4. He acknowledged that he is 
the Christ. 5. He bore witness, saying that he 
saw the spirit. 6. For he sent them to preach 
the kingdom of God. 7. And it came to pass 
in those days. 8. And I saw and heard. 

LESSON XXI. 
First and Second Aorist Subjunctive. 
151. vocabulary. 

άληθινόδ, irrte. διάνοια, r|, iiiiiid. 

civepLos, o, wind. €Κ€ϊ, atii'., there. 

ανοίγω, open. «vTeiGev, adv., thence. 

άίΓοκτίίνω, kill. eirei, conj., when, since. 

άίΓολύω, 7'elease. €-ΐΓ€ρωταω, ask (a question), 

άρτι, 2Lav.,jHst now. €-7Γΐθνμία, η, aesire. 

άσ•θ€ν€ω, am sick. Ισ-χυρό?, strong. 

pCos, o', life. οίΓου, adv., where, 

8ιάβολο8; ο, devil. ψόβο$, ο., fear. 
XpeCa, ή, need. 



6ο ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

152. The aor. subjv. of \ύω : 

ACTIVE. MIDDLE. 

Sing. I. λύ-(Γ-ω λν-σ'-ω-μαι 

2. λν-σ•-τ)-5 λύ-σ-η (for λύ-<Γη-<Γθΐ) 

3• λ•ύ-σ•-η λύ-σ-η-ται 

Plur. Ι. λν-σ-ω-μ,€ν λυ-<Γ-ώ-μίθο 

2. λν-0Γ-η-Τ€ λύ-(Γ-η-<Γθ€ 

3• λΰ-σ"-ω-σ"ΐ λΰ-σ-ω-νται 

153. Observe on the aor. subjv. : 

1. There is no augment. 

2. σ is the tense suffix. 

3. The personal endings are the same as in 
the pres. subjv. 

4. The aor. stem, \υσ-, is the same as the 
aor. ind. stem, 141, and the euphonic changes 
will be the same as in the aor. ind. 

154. Write the aor. subjv. of ττοιβω, do ; φαν€- 
ρόω, make tnanifest ; ^ράφω, write; ττείθω, per- 
suade ; αγω, lead; άρχομαι, begin ; ττε/Αττω, send; 
Βεχομαι, receive. 

155. The 2 aor. subjv. of βάΧλω, theme βαΧ-, 

^^ ACTIVE. MIDDLE. 

Sing. I. βάλ-ω βάλ-ω-μαι 

2. βάλ-η -s β<*λ-χ) (for βάλ-η-σ•οι) 

3. βάλ-η βάλ-η-ται 
Pliir. I. βάλ-ω-μ€ν βαλ-ώ-μ€θα 

2. βάλ-η-τ€ βάλ-η-<Γθ( 

3. βάλ-ω-σι βάλ-ω-νται 



FIRST AND SECOND AORIST SUBJUNCTIVE. 6 1 

156. Note that the same principles are ob- 
served in the formation of the 2 aor. subjv. as 
in the 2 aor. ind. (146-147). 

157. The 2 aor. subjv. of the follovi^ing may 
be conjugated: ηΧθον, I came, subjv. βΧθω ; 
eJSov, I saw, subjv. Ϊ8ω ; €<γ€νόμην, I became, 
subjv. 7eW/4ai. Observe that the augment 
does not appear in the subjv. 

158. Examine the following : 

1 . τηστίνωμίν eh αυτόν, let 7/s believe Pit Him. 

2. πιστ€υσω/Α€ν eis ο.ντόν, let ns believe on Him. 

Observe that there is no difference in trans- 
lation between a present subjunctive and an 
aorist. The distinction ordinarily made between 
the present and the aorist is that the present 
denotes what is contmued or extended, while the 
aorist expresses a simple act without any refer- 
ence to a continuance of the same. In i the 
idea is Let tis continue, or keep on haviiig faith 
in him. In 2 the thought is Let ns believe in 
him now, or get belief in Jiijn. 

159. In dependent clauses with Ίνα, in order 
that, and eav, if, either the pres. or aor. subjv. may 
be used, with the distinction in 158. The aorist 
snbjimctive does not denote past time, but is pres- 
ent or fjitnre zuith reference to the principal verb. 



62 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

160. The 2 aor. part, has the same endings 
as the present, -ων, -μενο<;, 90 and 99, with the 
accent on -ών. 6 βΧθών, h_e having co^ne ; ό 18ών, 
Jic having seen; ό βίττών, he having said ; ό άττο- 
θανών, he having died ; ό Χαβών, he having 
received ; ό 'γενόμβνος, he having become. 

161. The 2 aor. inf. also has the endings of 
the present, -eti/, -σθαι, 89 and 98, with (") on the 
ultima of the active and the (') on the penult of 
the middle. eXOelv, to come ; Ihetv, to see ; elirelv, 
to say; άττοθανβΐν, to die; Χαββΐν, to receive ; 
f^evmOai, to become. 

162. EXERCISES. 

I. lav ζίττωμβν otl άμαρτίαν ουκ βχ^ομβν, η 
αΚηθβία ουκ βσην iv ημΐν. 2. καΧ αύτη ΙστΙν 
η evToXr) αυτού Ίνα ττιστβύσωμ^ν τω ονόματι τού 
νΙού αυτού., Ιησού Ιίριστού. 3• ούτος ηΧθβ βίς 
μαρτυρίαν ίνα μαρτυρηση irepl τού φωτός ϊνα 
ττάντβς {all) τηστβΰσωσιν hC αυτού. 4• a'yωμev 
καΐ ημ€Ϊς ίνα άττοθάνωμβν μβτ αυτού. $. ΙΧθων 
ονν ο ^Ιησούς evpev αύτον. 6. οί'Κ ην βκβΐνος 
το φως αλλ' ίνα μαρτυρήτ^ ττβρί τού φωτός. 
7- βτύφΧωσβν αυτών τους οφθαΧμούς ινα μη 
ϊΒωσί τοις οφθαΧμοΐς. 8. Αάζαρος ^ άνβθανβν καΐ 
χαίρω {rejoice) hi υμάς ίνα ττιστενσητβ οτι ουκ 
ήμην^ €Κ€Ϊ. 9• ^7^ Ο'^'^ ηΧθον βαΧβίν βιρηνην eVt 
1 Learn the capital letters, § 1, ^ 3ee ^g^ 



IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES. 



63 



την yPjv. 10. ηΧθβ ο νίος τον θβου Ινα Χυστ} τα 
epya του ΒιαβόΧον. II. ή βτηθυμία της σαρκός 
καΐ η βτΓίθυμία των οφθαΧμών καΐ η άΧαζονία 
{vain display) του βίου, ουκ εστίν e'/c του πατρός, 
αΧΧα €κ του κόσμου βστίν ' καΐ ό κόσμος Trapaye- 
Tat {pass aiuay) καΐ η εττιθυμία αυτού, ό te ττοίών 
το θέΧημα του θβού μένει εις τον αιώνα. 



LESSON XXII. 

Irregular Adjectives of the Consonant 
Declension. 



163. 

αγοράζω, iuy. 
αδύνατο?, impossible. 
ακάθαρτο?, unclean. 
αμαρτωλό?, <>, sinner. 
diiras, all. 

βιβλίον, book, Bible. 
βουλομαι, wish. 
IXevOepos, free. 
μέγας, great. 
0T€, conj., when. 



vocabulary. 



ovSe, neither . . . nor. 
. . οΰ'τί, neither . . . 



ούδ€ . . 
ovVe . 

nor. 
■π-αρά, prep. w. gen., from 

the side of; w. dat., by 

the side of; w. ace, to the 

side of. 
iras, all. 

iroXvs, much, many. 
σ-τΓίίρω, sow. 
ψίνστη?, ο', liar. 

164. Learn the declension of ττολύς•, vuicJi, 
and μί^ας, great, § 36. To be observed : 

I. That both these adjectives have two dis- 
tinct stems, a longer and a shorter form, of 
which the former is more frequent. 



64 ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

2. That they are declined, for the most part, 
in the first and second declension. 

165. Learn the declension of ττά?, all, § 36, 
and note the following peculiarities : 

1. The masc. and neut. are declined in the 
third declension, while the fern, is declined in 
the first declension. 

2. The stem is τταντ-, and the nom. masc. is 
formed by adding 9, as in mute stems. In the 
fem. nom. sing, -σα is added. Cf. 127, 2. 

3. VT- drops before 9 of nom. sing, and -σι of 
the dat. plur. Cf. 132. 

4. The accent in the masc. and neut. sing, is 
that of monosyllables of the third declension, 
108, while in the plur. it is an exception to the 
rule. 

166. EXERCISES. 

I. I. -rrauTa Bt αύτοΰ iyevero.^ 2. ταΰταττάντα 
ζΧάΧησβν 6 ^Ιησούς ev τταραβοΧαΐς τοις οχΧοις. 
3. /Αβγαλτ;^ σου η 7Γί'στί9• 4• '^^^ iyevero φόβος 
μβ^ας eVl^ ττάντας. ζ. ττας ό iv αύτω μένων οϋχ 
άμαρτάνβί.^ 6. μβτα ταύτα ήκουσα φωνην μeyά\ηv 
ογΧου ΤΓοΧλοΰ. y. βσται yap ΘΧίψις μeyάk7]. 
8. ττάντ^ς ύμ€Ϊς υΙοΙ φωτός βστε καΐ νίοϊ ημέρης. 
g. καΐ τΓολυ ττΧήθος αττο της ΤαΧίΧαίας ήκουΧού- 

1 Cf. 43, 10, note. ^ Jn the pred. position, 64. ^ See 167. 



PERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE. 65 

θησβν. 10. TO αίμα * Ιησού του υιού αυτού καθα- 
ρίζβϋ ημάς άττο πάσης αμαρτίας. II. en ττοΧλα 
έχω ύμίν Xeyeiv. 12. ταύτην την βντοΧην €\αβον 
τταρα του πατρός μου. 1 3- ούτζ βμβ οϊΒατβ ούτ€ 
τον πατέρα μου. 

LESSON ΧΧΙΙΙ. 

Perfect Indicative Active and Passive. 

167. vocabulary. 

αληθώς, adv., truly. οθίν, adv., whence. 

άμαρτάνω, sin. ού'τω,^ adv., thus. 

αναβαίνω, go up. irov, adv., where. 

άνωθ£ν, ^a-v.,from above. σ-φάζω. kill. 

διαθήκη, η, covenant. τελίΐόω, fulfil, make per- 

ίορτή, χ[, feast. feet. 

4'ξω, adv. w. gen., without. φίλο?, ο, friend. 

tiri, prep. w. gen., upon ; ψίύΒομαι, lie. 

\v. ace, to, on, over. ώ?, conj., as. about. 

ηλιο5, ό, sun. ψιλ€ω, love. 

168. The perf. ind. of λύω is : 

active. ^. PASSIVE or middle. 

Sing. 

1. \ί-\ν-κΛ, / have loosed, \i-\v-^o.\., I have been loosed ox 

2. λί'-λυ-κα? etc. λ€-λυ-0Γαι have freed for 

3. λί-λυ-κί λί-λυ-ται myself. 

Plnr. 

1. λί-λν-κα-μίν λ€-λύ-μ€θα 

2. λί-λύ-κα-τί λί'-λυ-σ-θί 
3- λ€-λν-κα-<Γΐ λί-λυ-νται 

^ But oirws before a vowel. 

F 



66 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

169. Observe : i. That the tense suffix in the 
act. is -κα, with which compare -σα of the aor. 
2. That the 5 per. plur. act. has -σι, which shows 
the endings to be primary. In the sing, the end- 
ings do not appear as primary, but are the same 
as in the aor. act. The μι, σι, etc., never occur 
here. 3. That besides the augment there is the 
initial consonant of the verb, which extra sylla- 
ble Xe- is called reduplication. 4. That the perf. 
pass, has the reduplication and the primary pass, 
endings, which are added directly to the theme 
without the intervention of any tense suffix. 

170. The following forms will indicate the 
perfect of a few verbs : 

νικάω, conquer .... Perf. Act. ν£-ν1κη-κα 
ΐΓΐ<ΓΤ£νω, believe . . . Perf. Act. •ΐΓ£-•7Γίσ-τ6υ-κα 

άγαιτάω, /ove Perf. Act. ηγάττη-κα 

αΐτί'ω, ask for .... Perf. Act. ητη-κα i 

τ€λ€ΐόω, fulfil Perf. Pass. τ€-τίλ€ΐω-μ.αι 

γ£ννάω, beget Perf. Pass. γ£-γ€'ννη-μαι 

It is seen from these examples that a short 
final vowel is lengthened before -κα or -μαι, as 
before all tense suffixes, and that a verb begin- 
ning with a vowel or a diphthong cannot have 
the reduplication, but the simple augment. For 
the principles of augment and reduplication, see 
§77, I, 2, 3, 4. 

1 See 36, 2 for this augment. 



PERFECT INDICATIVE ACTIVE AND PASSIVE. 6•] 

171. The perfect has many peculiarities, whicli need 
not concern the learner at this stage, and can well be left 
for larger hand-books or the lexicon. 

Learn the following perfects of irregular 

verbs : 

άκοΰω, //ear 2 Perf. Act. άκ-ήκο-α 

γινώσκω, know. . . . Perf. Act. «-γνω-κα 

όράω, see Perf. Act. c -ώρα-κα 

172. A few verbs .have a second perfect in -a, 
not -κα, § 54 ; e.g. ηίνομαι^ become, 2 perf. γε- 
yov-a ; βρχ^ομαι, come, go, 2 perf. β\-ή\νθ-α. 

173. EXERCISES. 

I. καϊ iv τούτω Ύΐνώσκομβν otl eyvώκaμev 
αυτόν. 2. οϊ8αμεν otl βγ^ομβν a ^τήκαμεν air 
αυτού. 3. ταύτα ΧέλάΧηκα υμίν. 4• '^^'^ ό ιτοιων 
T7JV Βικαιοσύνην βξ αύτοΰ jeyevvyTaL. 5• καΙ^Ίμβΐς 
7Γ€7Γΐστ€νκαμ€ν την άγαττί^ν ην έχει ό θεός iv υμΐν. 
6. αΰτη he έστιν ή κρίσιν οτι το φως βΧι'ιΧυθβν 
et? τον κοσμον. /• '''^ ρήματα α εγώ ΧβΧάΧηκα 
υμΙν ττνβϋμά έστιν καϊ ζωή έστιν. 8. δ βωράκα- 
μβν καϊ άκηκόαμεν αττα^^έΧΧομβν καϊ ύμΐν. g. έν 
τοντω η άγαττ?/ του θβοΰ τβτβΧβίωται. ΙΟ. γράφω 
υμΙν, ττατέρβς, οτι έ^νώκατβ αύτον αττ άργ^ης. 
II. ev τούτω εστίν ή ά^αττη, ούχ^ οτι ημ€ΐ<ί 
η^αττήκαμβν τον θβον, αλλ' οτι αύτος η^άττη- 
σβν ημάς. 12. αύτος yap 6 ττατήρ φιΧβΐ υμάς, 
'ότι ύμεΐς βμβ ττβφιΧήκατε καϊ ττεττιστεύκατε οτι. 



6S ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

έ'γώ τταρα του ττατρος βζηΧθον. Ι3• "^βνστην 
ΊτβτΓοίηκβ αύτον on ου ττβττίστβυκεν et? την μαρτυ- 
ρίαν ήν μβμαρτύρηκβν 6 θεός Trepl του νιου αυτού. 

LESSON XXIV. 
AoRiST Passive Indicative and Subjunctive. 

174. VOCABULARY. 



άναγινώσ-κω, read. 


■π-άσ-χα, τό, indecl., Passover. 


av'piov, adv., to-morrow. 


Ίτόβίν, adv., wJioice. 


βλασ-φημί'ω, BLASPHEME. 


•π-ρωί, adv., early in the viorn^ 


γίνίά, x[, generation. 


ing. 


8ιδαχή, ή, teaching. 


σοφ05, ivise. 


ίγγνδ, adv., near. 


σ-ταυρόω, cnicify. 


Ιάομαι, heal. 


i5iro, prep. w. gen. and ace. 


κίλίνω, co/nmand. 


under. 


λυ•ΐΓ€«, grieve. 


φωνί'ω, call. 


175. The aor. pass. 


of λύω is — 


indicative. 


SUBJUNCTIVE. 


Sing. I. €-λΰ-θη-ν 


λυ-θώ 


2. €-λύ-θη-5 


λυ-θη? 


3. €-λν-θη 


λυ-θη 


Pllir. I. ί-λύ-θη-μ€ν 


λυ-θώ-μεν 


2. €-λύ-θη-Τ€ 


λυ-θή-τ£ 


3• €-λύ-θη-<Γαν 


ν,υ-θώ-σι 



176. Observe the following : 

I. The suffix for the aor. pass, is 9e, which is 
θη in the ind., and contracts with -ω, -rj<;, etc., 
of the subjv. with the circumflex. See § 5, 8 
and § 6, 5. 



AORIST PASSIVE INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE. 69 

2. The personal endings in the aor. incl. pass, 
are the secondary active. So likewise in the 
subjv. are found not pass., but act. endings. 

177. Before -de a short final vowel is length- 
ened ; e.g. τΓΟίέω, do, βττοιήθην ; φανερόω, make 
manifest, βφανερώθην. 

178. A theme in a mute stem (§ 2) is changed 
before -θβ; e.g. αγω, lead^ VX^V^> ττ^ίθω, per- 
suade^ έτΓβίσθην. 

«1 yy X + ^« = X^e 

ΤΓ,β,φ + θ€ = φθ€ 

Τ, 8, θ +θ€= σθε 

179. Some deponent verbs (76) have an aor. 
pass. Such are called passive deponents ; e.g. 
ττορβύομαι, go, βττορβύθην^ I wejit ; άττοκρίνομαι, 
reply, άττεκρίθην^ I replied. 

180. In some verbs there is found a 2 aor. 
pass, with the suifi.x e only ; e.g. ηράφω^ write, 
2 aor. pass. Ιηράφη, it was written. See 2 aor. 
pass, of φαίνω, § 58. 

181. EXERCISES. 

I. καΐ η ζωη iv αύτω βφανβρώθη. 2. καϊ αττε- 
κρίθησαν οΐ μαθηταί αύτον. 3- '^^^ βξβΧθων 
βτΓορβνθη et? βτερον τόπον. 4• oVt ^'γγύς '^ν ο 
τοτΓος τή'ζ ττολεως• οττου έσταυρώθη 6 ^Ιησοΰ'ζ. 
5- eav he ττορβυθώ ττέμψω αύτον ττρος ύμά<;. 



70 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



6. oi'K €ξ αιμάτων ouSe €κ θ6\ηματο<^ σαρκός 
ούδε €Κ θεΧήματος άνΒρος αλλ' βκ θβού iyevvri- 
θ'ησαν. "/. βίς {/or) τούτο βφανβρώθη ό υΙος του 
deov ϊνα Χυστ) τα epja ΒιαβόΧον, 8. οΐΒαμ€ν οτι 
eav αύτος φανβρωθτ} ομοιοί {like) αύτω έσόμβθα. 
9- άττβκρίθη ό ^ϊησοΰ<; καΐ eiirev αντοί<; τουτό βστι 
το epyov του θβού. ΙΟ. olha iroOev βρχ^ομαι καΐ 
•πού ύτταγω • ύμ€Ϊς 8e ουκ 0ί8ατ€ ττόθβν βρ^ομαι 
ij Ίτού ύττάγω. 

LESSON XXV. 

Participles. 



182. 



vocabulary. 



dpviov, τό, la tub. 
δννατό8, possible, able. 
ίκλ€κτό5, ο, chosen, elect. 
cvcKa, prep. w. gen., on account 

of. 
ίιταύριον, adv., on the morrow. 
€ύχαρισ-τ€ω, give thanks, bless. 
κώμη. η. Village. 

χωρίβ, adv., as a prep. w. § 



λογίζομαι, account. 
μικρός, little. 
iravTOTc, adv., always. 
■π-λανάω, lead astray. 
irpo', prep. w. gen., be- 
fore. 
TiKia, finish. 
ToiovTos, such. 
;n., apart from. 



183. 


The 


pres. part, of 


€ΐμί, I 


am : 








Sing. 






Plur. 






Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut. 


N.V. 


ων 


ούσα 


ον 


OVT€S 


ονσ-αι 


οντά 


G. 


OVTOS 


οΰ'σ-η? 


OVTOS 


όντων 


ούσών 


όντων 


D. 


OVTl 


οΰση 


OVTl 


οϋσ-ι 


ονα -ais 


ovcri 


A. 


ovTtt 


ουσ-αν 


ον 


ovTas 


ούσα? 


οντά 



PARTICIPLES. 7 1 

184. Observe the following : 

1. This participle is declined in three genders, 
sing, and plur. the same as ττά?, 165. 

2. The stem οντ- becomes ων- in nom. masc. 
sing., and οΰσα is for οντσα in nom. fem. sing. 
The neut. sing, is the mere stem. Cf. 106, 5. 

185. Learn the pres. act. part, of \νω, § 43. 
Note that the pres. part. act. of any verb in 

-ft) is the present stem of the verb with the pres. 
part, of €ΐμί. 

What is the pres. act. part, of ακούω, Jiear, 
Χβ^ω, say, κρίνω, judgc^ ηινώσκω, know? 

Participles are accented like adjectives, not with the 
recessive accent of verbs. 

186. Second aorist participles in -ων (160) are 

declined the same as pres. part, in -ων. 

187. The same tense signs are found in the 
participles as occur in the tenses of the indica- 
tive. 

Flit. Aor. Perf. 

ACTIVE, -σ- -σα- -κ- 

MIDDLE. -σ- -σα- No sign but the accent on the penult. -U£V05 

PASSrV^E. -θ-ψ- -θ€- " " " " " 

For the changes before tense sufifixes, see 
124 and 178. 

188. Leafn the aor. act. and pass. part, of 
Χύω, § 43, and observe the same principles in 



72 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

the formation of the nom. sing, as in the pres. 
act. part. 

In the aor. pass, the form Χυθβίς, which has 
irregular accent, is for Χυθβντς, 165, 3. e is 
lengthened to ei. 

189. All middle and passive participles, except 
the aorist passive, have the ending -μ,βνο^. 

Pres. Flit. Aor. Per/. 

MIDDLE. \ν-ό-μ€νο<; Χν-σ-ό-μίνο'ζ λν-σά-μενοζ λΐ-λν-μίνος 
PASSIVE. Same as the middle, except the fut. pass, is λυ-θη- 

σό-/Λ£νο5. 

190. Examine the following : 

1. άτΓΟκρίθάς ταύτα άτΓηλθ€ν. 

a. Having said tJiis 1 

b. When he said this \ he went away. 

c. He said this and J 

2. TTOpevo/xevoi Ss ημΐχζ Ικηρνσσομΐν. 

a. Going moreover "1 

b. As we adva?tced \ we preached. 

c. While we advanced) 

3. ίδών δέ ταύτα ίθανμαζζν. 

a. Seeing this (these) "1 

b. When he saw this \ he marvelled. 

c. Because lie saw this J 

191. Observe in these sentences : 

I. The participle agrees in number and case 
with the subject of the verb. 



AORIST PASSIVE INDICATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE. 73 

2. While the participle may be rendered into 
English by a participle (Ex. i a, 2 a, and 3 a), 
it more naturally takes the form of a dependent 
clause denoting time or cause. 

3. 'The tense of the participle is relative to 
the tense of the principal verb. 

192. Examine the following : 

1 . Tot? ακονονσι, to those who hear. 

2. Trept Toi γινώσκοντο5, concerning him luho knows. 

3. τον γενντ/σαντα, him who has begotten. 

4. ο ■γί•γίννημΙνο<;, he who is begotten. 

193. Observe that the article luith the partici- 
ple may occur in any case, and is equivalent to 
a relative clause in English. 

The participle is a most common form of verbal expres- 
sion in Greek, and to understand a few of its many uses 
is an essential to even a meagre knowledge of the language. 
Some of the most ordinary uses have been here explained ; 
and if these models are thoroughly mastered, little diffi- 
culty need confront the learner in the narrative passages 
of the New Testament. 

194. EXERCISES. 

I. ό μισών τον άδεΧφον αυτοί) ουκ eyei την 
αλήθβιαν. 2. ΤΓορβυόμβνοί δε κηρύσσετε XeyovTe^ 
ΟΤΙ iiyyiKev^ η βασίΧβία των ουρανών. 3• '^<^ί' 
άτΓΟκριθέντες αύτω elrrov Ουκ οϊΒαμβν. 4• ττοιω 
ΤΟ θέλημα του ττέμψαντύς μβ. 5• f^^^^ €\θόντ€<ϊ 
^ ^ΊΊ^ί^ι near. 



74 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

et9 την οΐκίαν elhov το τταιΒίον μετά Μαρ/ας της 
μητρός αΰτον. 6. ό μβνων iv €μοΙ και εγώ iv 
αντω ούτος βχ^ει γαραν ττοΧΚην. /• ό ττέμψας μ€ 
δίκαιος βστιν. 8. άκουσας δε ό ^Ιησούς βθανμα- 
aev και βίττεν τοις άκοΧυνθονσιν,^ άμην λέγω 
ΰμίν. 9• ταύτα eypayjra νμΐν irepl των ττΧανών- 
των'^ ύμας. ΙΟ. ταύτα αυτού ΧαΧούντος^ ττολλοί 
ετΓίστευσαν. II. ττάς 6 τνιστβύων ότι Ιησούς 
εστίν 6 άριστος έκ τού θεού γεγεί'ΐ'τ/ταί, καΐ ττάς 
ο αγαττων τον Ύβννήσαντα αγαττα ■* τον '^ε'-^βννη- 
μένον βξ αντοΰ. 

LESSON XXVI. 

Interrogative and Indefinite Pronouns. 

195. vocabulary. 

αγορά, η, i7iarket-place. μαρτυρία, η, witness. 

άγρ05. 6, field. oivos, ο, wine. 

διακονί'ω, minister. οϋκί'τι, adv., not yet., no longer. 

8ιάκονο8, ό, minister, DEA- όταν, conj. w. subj., when. 

COX. iroTi, adv., once., ever. 

θ€ρο•π•€ΰω, heal. ιτρόβατον, τό, sheep. 

θηρίον. τό, wild beast. τότ€, adv., tJien. 

μάλλον, adv., 7)iore, rather. ταχ€ω5, adv., quickly. 
φίύγω, yfi?,?, escape. 

^ For the contraction eou, see § 8. 
» 2 For ω instead of oo, see § 5, I. 

^ A participle may be used in the genitive to agree with a 
noun, pronoun, or adjective. This construction has no gram- 
inaiical connection with the rest of the sentence, and is called 
genitive absolute. A conjunction, as w/iile, wheii, because, must 
be used in translating such phrases into English. 

4 See §8, I. 



INTERROGATIVE AND INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 75 

196. Learn the declension of the interroga- 
tive pronoun τις, w /ίο? and τι, wJiatf and the 
indefinite pronoun τις, some one, and τ\, some- 
thing, § 41. 

Observe the following : 

1. Both the interrogative and indefinite pro- 
nouns are declined alike. 

2. The interrogative pronoun has the acute 
on X}cvQ, first syllable, while the indefinite has the 
grave on the last syllable, or, in other words, 
has no accent of its own, and is therefore an 
enclitic. 

197. Examine the following : 

1 . συ Tt9 ei ; ivho art thou ? 

2. τις ί'στιν ο άνθρωπος ; wJio is tJie mail ? 

3 . TLva ζ-ητίίτί ; ivhom do you seek ? 

4. γιΐ'ώσ/<ετ£ τι τηποίηκα, ye know wJiat I Jiave done. 

Note that the interrogative τ/? is used in both 
direct (i, 2, 3) and indirect (4) questions. 

198. Examine the following : 

1 . €011' μΐ] Tt? γεννηθβ άνωθεν, unless one sJmll be born frojn 

abo7<e. 

2. TU'€5 δε ei αυτών εΤττον, certain ones of them said. 

3. και Tt<; άνηρ χωλός, and a certain lame man. 

4. iav Tt αιτ7']σητ€ με iv τω ονόματι μον τοντο ποιήσω, If 

you s/iall ask any tiling of me in my name, I sJiab. 
do it. 



ηβ ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

Observe that the indefinite rt? is enclitic' 
when it is possible. 

These pronouns are of the most frequent occurrence in 
the New Testament, each being found several hundred 
times. 

199. The following are the infinitives of \νω : 

Pres. Fut. Aor. Pe?-/. 

ACTIVE. λύ-€ΐν λΰ-<Γ-£ΐν λΰ-σαι λί-λυ-κ-^-ναι 

MIDDLE. λύ-€-(Γθαι λύ-σί-σθαι λύ-ςτα-σ-θαι λ€-λύ-(Γθαι 

PASSIVE. λν-£-(Γθαι λυ-θή-(Γ€-σθαι λυ-θή-ναι λ€-λΰ-<Γθαι 

It is to be observed that the ending ai is 
everywhere shoj^t in the infinitive, and that the 
infinitive in -ναι has irregular accent, as well as 
the perf. pass, in -σθαι. 

200. The infinitives of €ΐμί, am, are eivai,pres., 
and eaeadaijfut. Of oXha, I know, the infinitive 
is €l8evai, to know. 

201. EXERCISES. 

I. τί δε υμίν 8οκ6ί ; 2. iav τις αηαττα τον 
κόσμον, ουκ €στιν η αηάττΎ] του ττατρος iv αύτω. 
3- eav Τί αΐτώμεθα κατά {according ίο) το θβΧημα 
αυτού άκούβί ημών. 4- ^'ί^ομέν τίνα iv τω ονόματι 
σου €κβά\\οντα Βαιμόνια. ζ. τί deXeTe ττοι,ήσω 
νμΐν ; 6. άτΓΟκριθεΙς δε 6 Ίησοΰ<; elirev ουκ ο'ίδατβ 
τί αίτβΐσθβ. 7• νμ^ΐς δε τίνα μβ λέγετε elvai ; 

^ See page 29, notCt 



FUTURE AND AORIST OF LIQUID VERBS. 



77 



aTrOKpi£e\<i ό Πέτρος Xeyei αντω ζύ ei 6 Χριστός. 
8. αΎαττητοί, νυν τβκνα θβοΰ ε'σ/χεί', καΐ ούττω 
βφανβρώθη τι €σόμ€θα. οΐΒαμεν οτι iav φανβρωθί} 
ομοίοι, αντω ίσόμζθα ότι οψόμεθα {sJiall see) αντον 
καθά^ζ εστίν. g. καΐ ττορβυομίνων αντών^ ev ττ) 
οδω elirev τις ττρος αντον ΆκοΧονθήσω σοι. 
ΙΟ. όταν yap ασθενώ τότε 8υνατός είμι. 



LESSON XXVII. 
Future and Aorist of Liquid Verbs. 



202. 



VOCABULARY. 



άτΓοκτίίνω, ki7/. 
Βίκτυον, TO, iiei. 
ίκτίίνω, stretch out. 
Ιπαίρω, raise lip. 
ίτΓίτιμάω. rebuke. 
καθίζω, sit. 

μακρόθίν, 2La\.,from afar. 
νυμφίο5, ο, bridegroom. 



όφβίλω, oiight. 
Ίτάσ-χω, suffer. 
π€ΐράξω, tempt. 
ιτλούσιοβ, rich. 
τΓοτήριον, τό, cup. 
σ•τρατιώτη9, d, soldier. 
σωτηρία, η, salvation. 
φρόνιμος, wise. 



203. The future of μένω, remain, is 



Sing. 



Plur. 



ACTIVE. 

1. μ€νώ (μίν-ί 

2. μ£ν€Ϊ8 (μ€ν-€ 

Ι. μενονμ(ν (μίν-ί 
2. μίνίΐτί (μ€ν-€' 



ω) 

€IS) 

-α) 

-0-μ6ν) 
e-T€) 



3• μ£νοΰσ-ι (μ€ν-€-ου-σι) 



middle. 
μενοΰμαι (μίν-ί'-ο-μαι) 
μίνη (μίν-ί'-η), §6, 5 

μίνείται (μίν-ί-ί-ται) 

μενοΰμίθα (μίν-ί-ό-μεθα) 
μ6ν£ϊσθ€ (μίν-ί'-ί-σθε) 
μ€νοννται (μ€ν-€-ο-νται) 



^ See footnote 3, page 74• 



78 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

Observe : i. That μένω is a liquid verb (theme 
ending in λ, μ, ν, or ρ). 2. The sufifix for the 
future is not σ%, but e%. 3. This short vowel 
contracts with the variable vowel. See § 5, 7 
and 8 ; § 6, 7 ; § 7, 2. 4. When one of the 
uncontracted syllables has an accent, the con- 
tracted form must have an accent — the circum- 
flex when possible. 

204. This contraction may be seen more 
simply if represented thus : €% = ""Ll ; i.e. ου 
occurs before /x and v, and ei in all other 
forms. 

The present and imperfect indicative of themes 
ending in e have the same contraction as the 
future of liquid verbs. Learn φιλβω, § 59. 

205. The fut. ind. of αίρω (ap-^), take aivay, 
is άρω; of αττοστελλω (ατΓοστελ-^), scitd, is άττο- 
στελω ; of eye t ρω (eyep-), raise Jip, is eyepo) ; of 
ετταγγελλω (ίτταγγβλ-), promise, is eirayyeXo) ; of 
άτΓΟΚτείνω (αττοκτβν-), kill, is άττοκτβνω. 

206. Rule : T/ie future of all liquid verbs is 
formed by the suffix e%. 

207. The aor. ind. of μ^νω is e-p,eiv-a, subjv. 
μείν-ω, part, μβίν-ας, inf. μβΐν-αι. 

1 See § 82, 3 and 4. 



Future and aorist of liquid verbs. 79 

The aor. ind. of ετταγγελλω is ΙττήγγβιΧ-α, subjv. 
€7Γαγγ6ίλ-ω, part, ετταγγε/λ-ας, inf. iirajyelX-aL ; 
κρίνω, ind. βκρίν-α, subjv. κρίν-ω, part, κρίν-ας, 
inf. κρίν-αι. 

208. Rule : T/ie aorist active and middle of 
liquid verbs have no σ, but forjn tJie aorist by 
lengthening the last vowel in the theme to the 
corresponding long vowel, e, Jioivever, cJianges to 
€1, and a to η {except before e, i, or p). Cf. 53, i. 

209. exercises. 

I. άτΓοστελβί ο νιος του άνθρωπου τους άγγβ- 
Χους αυτού. 2. καϊ αΰτη βστίν η iirajyeXia 
(promise) ην αντος i'πη'γyeLXaτo ήμΐν την ζωην 
αΐωνίον. 3• ^ εγε/'ρα? τον Ίησούν καϊ 7] μας συν 
^Ιησοΰ^ eyepel. 4• ήραν τον κύριον etc του μνη- 
μβίου^ καϊ ουκ οϊ8αμ€ν ττοΰ βθηκαν {laid) αυτόν. 
5• ο ^ε-χόμβνος υμάς βμε δε^^εταί, καϊ ο βμβ δβχο- 
μενος Βέχ^βταί τον άττοστείΧαντά με. 6. καθώς 
εμε άττεστείΧας εις τον κόσμον «αγώ^ άττεστειΧα 
αυτούς εις τον κόσμον. '] . εάν εν ύμΐν μεινη ο 
άτΓ άρχ^ης ηκούσατε.^ καϊ ύμεΐς εν τω υΐω καϊ (also) 
εν τω ΊτατρΙ μενείτε. 8. δίά τούτο καϊ ή σοφία 
τού θεού είττεν Άττοστελω εΙς αυτούς ττροφήτας 
καϊ άτΓοστόΧους. g. ην 8ε ε'γγ^"? το ττάσχ^α, ή 

1 See § 23, α. ^ tomb. 3 See § 13. 



So ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

€ορτη των ΊουΒαίων. εττάρας ονν τού<; οφθαΧμούς 
ο Ίησοΰς και θβασάμβνος otl ττοΧύς οχΧο<; βργ^εται 
ττρο'ζ αύτον Xeyei ττρος Φίλίτητον ΐΐόθεν ayopa- 
σωμβν άρτους ίνα φά^ωσι {eat) ούτοι ; 

LESSON XXVIII. 
Pronouns : Reflexive, Reciprocal. 

210. vocabulary. 

άνοτΓίτΓτω, recline, fall down, καθαρό?, purified. 

γέμω. βΙΙ. κρατε'ω, grasp. 

St'vSpov, TO, tree. μακάριος, blessed. 

δώρον, TO,g!ft. μισ-θός, ο, hire, pav. 

ίλιτίζω, Jiope. μυσ-τήριον, τό, MYSTERY. 

ί|€<Γτι., /'/ is lawful. σό§, thy. 

θνσ-ία, η, sacrifice. φρονί'ω, think. 

Ικανόδ, si/fficient, able. ώσ-τ£, conj., so that, and so.^ 

211. Learn the declension of the reflexive 
pronouns Ιμαυτου., myself, σεαυτου•, thyself, εαυ- 
τόν, himself, § 40. 

Observe : i. These pronouns occur in the 
oblique cases only. 2. They are formed from 
the personal pronoun and the intensive αυτός, 
€μαντον = €μ-\-αντοΰ ; σ€αυτον=:σ€-^ αύτον', eav- 
τοϋ = € (pron. not found in N. Τ.)+αύτοΰ. 

212. βαυτού is often written in a shorter form 
αυτού, αύτω, etc. 

^ This latter sense at the be^inni>iz of a sentence. 



PRONOUNS: REFLEXIVE, RECIPROCAL. 8 1 

213. Examine the following : 

1. eyw μχιρτνρω περί ΐμαντον, I bear luiiness concerning 

tnyself. 

2. €γώ δο^ά^ω ίμαντόν, /glorify myself. 

3. απ i^avTov ου λαλώ, I speak not of myself. 

4. τΊ λέγει? ττερι σεαυτοΰ, what sayest thoit concerning 

thyself. 

5. δοξάσει αυτόν εν εαυτω, he will glorify Him in himself. 

6. avToi εν εαυτοΓ? στενά^ο/χεν, we ourselves groan within 

ourselves. 

In all these examples the pronoun refers back 
to the subject of the sentence, hence the term 
reflexive. 

Note that the 3 per. pron. βαυτοΐς may refer 
(as in Ex. 6) to other than the 3 per. 

214. The reciprocal pronoun άΧληΧων, of one 
another, is found in dat. άλληΧοις, and ace. άλλ?;- 
Χους. μοσοΰσιν άΧΧιίΧονς, they hate one another. 

215. EXERCISES. 

I. TLva aeavrov iroieh ; 2. αύτος δε Ιησούς 
ουκ βΤΓίστβυσβν αυτόν αύτοΐς. 3• Ο'' μαθηταί 
σου τΓΟίοΰσί ο ουκ βξβστιν ττοιβΐν ev σαββάτω. 
4- ωστβ μαρτυρβΐτβ ίαυτοΐς οτί υιοί eVre των 
φονευσάντων^ τους ττροφήτας. 5• '^'^' ^μαντον 
ουκ έΧηΧυθα. 6. ό yap ττατηρ e^et ζωην ev 

1 φονεύω, slay. 



82 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

εαυτω. /■ ^^^ βϊττωμβν ότί άμαρτίαν ουκ εχ^ομεν, 
εαυτούς ττΧανώμεν καΐ ή άΧήθεια ουκ εστίν εν 
ημΐν. 8. ελτΓί? δε βΧεττομενη ουκ εστίν ελττίς, 
ο yap βΧεττει τις εΧττίζει, ; g. αμήν άμην Xeym 
σοι, εάν μή τις 'γεννηθτ] άνωθεν, ου Βνναται ΙΒεΐν 
την βασίΧείαν του θεού, το ^ε^εννημενον εκ της 
σαρκός σαρξ εστίν, καΐ το ^ε^εννημενον εκ του 
Ίτνεύματος ττνεΰμά εστίν. 

LESSON XXIX. 

Imperative Mood. 

216. vocabulary. 

άίΓοκαλύ-ΐΓτω, reveal. καλώ?, adv., well. 

βασ-τάζω, toiicJi, bear. κλαίω, weep. 

γαμί'ω, marry. μ€τανοίω, repent. 

γνωσ -TOs, known. ϊτλήν, conj., and as a prep. w. 

δύο, two. gen., except. 

«Is, one. σήμ€ρον, adv., to-day. 

ίλάχισ -Tos, least. τέσ-σ-αρίβ, four. 

καθάτΓίρ, even as. Tpets, three. 

κακώ5, adv., ill, badly. ύ'ο-τίρον, adv., afterward. 

217. The pres. imp. of Χΰω is : 

active. middle and passive. 

λύ-ου 
λυ-€-(Γθω 
λύ-ί-σθί 
λυ-ί'-σθων or 
λυ-ί-σθωταν 



Sing. 


2. 


λΰ-ί 




3• 


λυ-€-τω 


Plur. 


2. 


λύ-£-Τί 




3• 


λυ-ό-ντων or 
λυ-ί-τωσαν 



IMPERATIVE MOOD. 83 

218. The endings of the imp. are : 

ACTIVE. MIDDLE and PASSIVE. 

Sing. Pliir. Si/ig. Pliir. 



2. 


θι 


Τ£ 


2. 


<ΓΟ 


σθί 


3• 


τω 


ντων or 
τωσαν 


3• 


σθω 


σθων or 
(τθωσαν 



α. θί of the act. is regularly dropped in verbs like λυω. 
i>. λνον is for λύ-ε-σο. 

219. Examine the following : 

άκονετω, let Jiiin hear. 
μη θανμάζίτΐ, marvel not. 

Rule : TJie imperative is used to express a 
command. The negative is μη. 

220. Learn the aor. imp. act., mid., and pass. 
of λυω, § 56, and the 2 aor. act, and mid. of 
λεί,'ττω, § 57. 

a. ov in the aor. act. is an irregular ending. 

b. θί in aor. pass, becomes tl to avoid a combination 
of rough 1 mutes. 

221. ουδβ/ς, no one (ovBe, nor + eh, one), is 
declined as follows : 



ούδΐίς 


οΰδ(μ.(α 


ούδί'ν 


ovSevos 


οϋδ€μιά8 


οϋδίνόδ 


οΰδ€νί 


οΰδίμιά 


oΰδevC 


οΰδένα 


οΰδεμίαν 


ονδ€ν 



Cf. eh, § 39. 

1 See § 2. 



84 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

222. EXERCISES. 

I. Xeyet αντω ΦίΧίτττΓος ^ρχον καί 'ihe. 
2. μβτανοεΐτβ καΐ τηστβύβτβ ev τω βύαγγεΧίω. 
3- ητορβνθητί ττρος τον \αόν. 4• καΧως Troieire 
τοις μίσοϋσιν υμάς. 5• ό δε Ίησονς βίττεν αύτω τί^ 
μ€ λεγβί? ayaOov ; ouBeU άβαθος ec ^ μη eh 6 θβός. 
6. 0( 8e ττάλιν [again) 'έκραξαν Σταύρωσαν αντΰν. 
y. ό e -χων ώτα^ άκούβιν άκουβτω. 8. ό θβυς φως 
εστί καΐ σκοτία ουκ 'έστιν ev αύτω ούΒεμία^ 9• ^Vt 
ΤΓολλά €χ^ω υμίν Xeyeiv, άλλ' ου δύνασθε βαστάζειν. 
ΙΟ. πάντα 8ί' αυτού eyeveTO, καΙ χωρίς αύτοΰ 
eyeveTO ovSe ev. II. μη κρίνετε Ίνα μη κρίθΡ]τε. 
12. 6 τΓίστος εν εΧαχίστω καΐ εν ττοΧΧω ττιστός 
εστίν, καΐ ο εν εΧαχιστω άδικος καΐ εν ττοΧΧω 
άδίκός εστίν. Ι3• μν θαυμάζετε, άδεΧφοί, ει μισεί 
υμάς 6 κόσμος. 

LESSON XXX. 
Adjectives in -ov and -εσ. — Comparison. 

223. VOCABULARY. 

αληθή?, u'ue. γάμος, ο, marr/ag'e, polyGAUY. 

όσ-θίνήδ, weak, sick. δεσ-μός, ο, chain, bond. 

άφρων, foolish . διώκω, persecute, pursue. 

^ The neuter τί often has the sense of why. 
^ If. ^ See irregular nouns, § 34, 

* See § 142. 



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 



^5 



μονογίνήδ, only begotten. 
b\Lyos, /eia, θΐ.ιοα?χ/ιγ. 
ΐΓ£ρισ-σ09, abiiiidiUlt. 
ιτλήρη5, full. 
ΐΓρο<Γ€υ\ή, η, prayer. 



(Γκανδαλίζω, cause to stum- 
ble, SCANDALIZE. 

τρί'χω, run. 

νγιή9, whole, healthy, hy- 
giene. 



υψισ -TOS, highest. 

224. Learn the declension of αληθής, true 
(§ 35), with which compare ηένο<ί (§ 30). Ob- 
serve that there are but two endings — the 
masc. and fern, being alike. 

a. -ets of the ace. plur. is irregular. 

See § 35 for the declension of άφρων. 

225. Examine the following adjectives : 





Positive. 


Comparative. 


Superlative. 


I. 


Ισχυρό?, 


Ισχυρό -Tepos, 


(Ισχυρό-τατοδ), 




strong. 


strong-er. 


strong-est. 


2. 


άσ-θίνήδ, 


άσθ€νί'σ-τ€ρο8, 


(άσθίνί'σ-τατοβ), 




iveak. 


weak-er. 


weak-est. 


3• 


σοφό?, 


σοφώ -Tepos, 


(σοφώ-τατοβ), 




wise. 


wisc-r. 


wisest. 


4• 


V€OS, 


ν€ώ-Τ£ρ05, 


(vcU-TttTOs), 




young. 


young-er. 


young-est. 



Observe: i. That in all these examples some- 
thing is added to make the degrees. -repo<i = r 
ox cr and -τατος = si or est. 2. These are added 
directly to the stem. 3. When the penultimate 
vowel is short, as in 3 and 4, the of the stem 
becomes ω before -τβρος and -τατος. 



86 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

226. The suffixes may be -ίων (declined like 
άφρων) and -ιστός, but mostly in the irregular 
adjectives. See § 37, 2, and learn the adjectives 
in § 38. 

227. Examine the following adverbs : 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

κακώ$, badly. χ«ΐρον ( ) 

καλώς, ivell. κάλλιον (κάλλισ-τα) 

ταχ€ω8, quickly. τάχιον (τάχιστα) 

It is to be observed : i. The positive of the 
adverb ends in «?. How different from the gen. 
plur. of the adj. .'' 2. The comparative of the 
adverb is the neut. sing. ace. of the adjective. 
3. The superlative of the adverb is the neut. 
plur. ace. of the superlative of the adjective. 

228. Examine the following : 

μύζονα. αγάττην ταντη<; ουκ οΐδα /xev, greater love than this 
we know not. 

Rule : The comparative degree is followed by 
the genitive case. 

229. EXERCISES. 

I. ούτος δε Ιστιν π\ήρης 'χάριτος και άΧηθβίας. 
2. οϊ8αμ€ν οτί άΧηθης el. 3• ό δέ οττίσω ^ μου 

1 After. Adverbs of position are followed by the genitive. 



REGULAR VERBS IN μί. 87 

€ρχόμ€νος Ισ'χυρότ€ρό^ μου βστίν. 4• άφρων, 
ταύττ} rfj νυκτϊ την ψ'νχήν σον αΐτονσι άττο σον. 
5- ουκ βστιν ΒονΧος μβίζων τον κυριον αύτον ov8e 
άττόστοΧος μείζων τον ττβμψαντος αυτόν. 6. και 
Βόξα iv ύψίστοίς. "]. el e/xe βΒίωξαν, καΐ νμά<; 
Βιώξουσίν • el τον \oyov μου έτηρησαν, καΐ τον 
ύμετερον τηρησουσιν, αλλά ταΰτα ττάντα ττοίή- 
σουσιν el<; υμάς Sta το όνομα μου, οτί ουκ οϊΒασίν 
τον 7Γ€μ•ψαντά με. 8. '^άββατόν ecrrt, κα\ ουκ 
εζβστίν σοι α pat τον κράβαττον {bed). δ? δε 
άττβκρίθη αΰτοΐς ό 7Γου]σα<ζ με ύγίτ} εκείνος μοι 
είττεν Άρον τον κράβαττύν σου καΐ ττεριττάτει. 

LESSON XXXI. 

Regular Verbs in μι : 8ί8ωμι, give. 

230. Of the two conjugations in Greek (see 
73) the verbs in -ω are by far the more common. 
Still, those that have the older endings -μι, -?, 
etc., form a very substantial part of the ordinary 
verbal forms ; e.g: άφίημι, forgive ; Βείκνυμι, 
shozv ; ΒίΒωμι, give ; εΙμί, am ; Ίστημι, set ; 
ομνυμι, sivear ; τίθημι,, put, place ; φημί, say. 
These words, it is easily seen, are naturally of 
very common use. Hence they are among the 
old verbs of the language, and may be called 
strong verbs, having, as they do, the strong 
endiners. 



88 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

231. The conjugation of these verbs differs 
from the conjugation of the verbs in -ω, in two 
systems only — the pres. and 2 aor. systems. 
In these two systems the verbs in μι have no 
variable vowel %, but the endings are added 
directly to the theme, § 85. 

232. Learn the principal parts of Βί8ωμί 
(§ 88) and the pres. and 2 aor. systems, act., 
§§ 62 and 63. (The mid. and pass, of these 
systems are very rare.) 

233. The most important compounds of 8ί8ωμι 
are with the following prepositions, τταρά, άττό, 
έττί. 

234. Observe the following on the forms of 
the verbs in μι : 

1. The old endings μι, etc., occur. 

2. -aat ends the 3 per. plur. primary, 

3. -σαν, and not v, is found in the secondary 
tenses 3 per. plur. 

235. Note the following in ΒίΒωμι : 

1. The present system has a reduplication, St-, 

2. eBiSovv like βφίΧονν, § 59. 

3. κα^ occurs for σα in the aor. ind. act. 

1 Three verbs in Greek have this pecuUarity in the aor. act. 
ind., άφίημι, aor. άφηκα ; δίδωμί, aor. €δωκα ; τίθημι, aor. 
ίθηκα. 



REGULAR VERBS IN μΐ. 89 

4. For the contraction in the 2 aor. subjv., 
δο'ω, δότ;?,- etc., see §§5, 12, and 8, 5. 

5. 8odvat, 2 aor. act. inf., is for ho-evai. 

236. Learn the principal parts of άφίημί 
(άττό -\- ϊημί, Stem e), forgive, § 88, and the con- 
jugation, § 66. 

237. The pluperf. act., which is a rare tense, 
has the suffix «et ; and being a secondary tense, 
secondary endings occur. See § 77, latter part. 

238. Translate the forms of άφίημί and Βίδωμι, 
in §§96 and 101. 

LESSON XXXII. 

■ Regular Verbs in μί : ΐστημι, τίθημι. 

239. Examine the following : 

άφίημι (stem e), άφ-ί-ψμι 8ί8ωμι (stenr 8o), Βί-8ω-μι 

ΐστημί (stem στα), ΐ-στψμι τίθημι (stem θε), τί-θψμι 

Observe that in all these verbs there is a 
reduplication, in which the vowel is l. ΐστημι, 
is for σί-στημι. 

240. So likewise in some verbs in ω — 

γι-(γ)νώ-σκω ■γί{γ)νο-μΜ 

(γνο) (γεν) 



go ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAAIENT GREEK. 

This form of reduplication has to do with the 
present system only. 

241. Learn the principal parts and pres. and 
2 aor. systems of Χστημ,ι and τίθημι, §§ 62 and 63. 

242. The most common compounds of ΐστημι 
are with ανά, κατά, eiri, βξ, συν, αϊτό, αντί. 

τίθημι is most common with ctti, τταρά, and 
Ίτρός. 

243. Translate the forms in §§ 105 and 108. • 

244. Impersonal Verbs. 

Sei, it is necessary ί$€στι, it is lawful. 

SoKCL, it seems {besf). μίλα, it concerns. 

μ€ταμελ€ί, it repents one. 

TL μι. Set TTOtetv ; wliat must /do? 

δει νμα<; -γίννηθηναι ανωθίν, ye must be born from above. 

Observe that hd takes the accusative and the 
infinitive. 



SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION. 



First Epistle of John. 

Ο ΗΝ ΑΠ' APXHS, ο άκηκόαμβν, ο ι 
€ωρακαμ.€ν rot? οφθαΧμοΙς ημώρ, ο έθβασά- 
μεθα καΐ ο1 'χ^εΐρες ημωρ εφηΧάφησαν rrepl 
τον λόγου της ζ(οης, — καΐ η ζωη έφανε- 2 
ρώθη, καΐ εωράκαμεν καΐ μαρτυρονμεν καΙ 
άπαγγβλΧομεν υμιν την ζ(οην την αΐώνιον 
■ητυς ην προς τον πάτερα καΐ εφανερώθη 
ημΐν, — ο εωρακαμεν και ακηκοαμεν άπαγ- 3 
γεΧΧομεν και νμυν, ινα και νμεις κοινοη'ίαν 
εχητε μεθ' ημών • καΐ η κοινωνία 8ε η ημέ- 
τερα μετά τον πατρός και μετά τον νΐον 
αντον ^Ιησον X.pLcrTOV' και ταντα γράφομεν 4 
ημείς ίνα η χαρά ημων^ y πεπληρωμένη. 

Και εστίν αύτη η ayyeXta ην άκηκόαμεν 5 
απ αντον και άναγγέλΧομεν νμΐν, οτι 6 
θεός φως ΙστΙν καΐ σκοτία ονκ εστίν εν 
αντω ονΒεμία. ^Εάν ειπωμεν οτι κοι- 6 

^ ύμων. 

91 . 



92 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. [l., II. 

ι^ωϊ^ιαι^ e^o/xev μετ αντον και. ev τω σκότει 
τΓ€ρητατωμ€ν, ■^ίνοόμίθα και ου ττοιονμ^ν 

7 ΤΎ)ν άΧηθβίαν' kav δε kv τω φωτΐ περυπα- 
τωμ.ξ.ν ώς αυτός εστίν kv τω φωτί, κοίνω- 
νίαν εγομεν /xer' αΧΚ-ήΧων και το αΓ/χα 
Ίησου του υΙου αυτού καθαρίζει ημάς άττο 

8 πάσης αμαρτίας. Έάν ειπωμεν οτι άμαρ- 
τίαν ουκ εγομεν, εαυτούς πλανώμεί' και η 

9 άλτ^'^έΐα ουκ εστίν kv ημίν. εάν ομολογω- 
μεν τάς αμαρτίας ημών, πιστός kστιv καΧ 
οίκαιος ίνα άφη ημιν τάς αμαρτίας και 

ΙΟ καθαρίση ημάς άπο πάσης άοικίας. Έάν 
εΐπωμεν οτι ουχ ημαρτηκαμεν, xfJεύστηv 
ποιουμεν αυτόν και 6 Χόγος αυτού ουκ 
Ι εστίν kv ημΐν. Ύεκνία μου, ταύτα 

γράφω υμίν tt'a μη άμαρτητε. και εαν 
τις άμάρτΎ), παράκλητον εγομεν προς τον 

2 πάτερα "Υησουν Χ,ριστον δίκαιον, καΐ αύτος 
ίλασμός kστιv περί των αμαρτιών ημών, ου 
περί τών ημέτερων οε μόνον ^ άλλα καΐ περί 

3 όλου του κόσμου. Και εν τούτω γινωσκο- 
μεν ότι kγvώκaμεv αυτόν, εάν τάς εντολάς 

4 αυτού τηρώμεν. 6 λέγων ότι Κγνωκα αυ- 
τόν και τάς εντολάς αυτού μη τηρών φεύ- 

^ μ6ν<ι)ν. 



II.] SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION. ' 93 

στης ΙστΙν, και eV τοντω η άληθβία ουκ 
εστίν ' δ? δ' αν τηργΙ αντον τον λόγον, άλτ)- ζ 
θωζ iv τοντω η αγάπη τον θεον τετεΚείωται. 
'Ef τοντω γίνώσκομεν otl iv αντω βσμεν • 
6 λέγων iv αντω μ^ενειν οφείλευ καθωζ iKel- 6 
νο<ζ περυεπάτησεν καΐ αντος ττεριττατεΐν. 

Αγαπητοί, ονκ εντοΧην καινην γράφω η 
υμΐν, αλλ' ivToX'qv παλαιά^" ην ειγετε άπ 
άρχΎ]'ζ • η ivτo\η η πάλαια iaTLv 6 Χόγοζ 
ον ηκονσατε. πάλιν ivτoληv καινην γράφω 8 
vpiiv, ο εστίν αληθές iv αντω και iv νμΐν, 
ότι η σκοτία παράγεται και το φίος το 
άληθινον η^η φαίνει. Ό λέγων εν τω g 

φωτι et^'αt και τον άοελφον αντον μισίον iv 
τη σκοτία iστlv εως άρτι. ο α'χαπώ^' τον ίο 
άΒελφον αντον iv τω φωτι μένει, καΐ σκάν- 
δαλοι^ iv αντω ονκ εστίν '^ 6 δε μισίον 1 1 
τον άοελφον αντον iv τη σκοτία iστιv και 
iv τη σκοτία περιπατεί, και ονκ οι8εν πον 
νπάγει, οτι η σκοτία iτvφλωσεv τονς οφθαλ- 
μούς αντον. Τράφω νμΐν, τεκνία, οτι ιζ 
άφεωνται νμΐν αί αμαρτίαι δια το όνομα 
αντον• γράφω νμΐΐ', πατέρες, οτι iγvώκaτε 13 
τον απ άρ^ης• γράφω νμΙν, νεανίσκοι, οτι 



ουκ ΐστιν ΐΐ> αντω. 



94 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. [ll. 

14 νβνίκηκατε τον ττονηρόν. άγραφα νμΐν, 
τταιδια, otl έγνώκατ€ tou πάτερα- eypaxpa 
νμίν, 7τατέρ€<ζ, otl εγνώκατβ τον απ άρ-χ^ης• 
eypaxjja νμιν, νεανίσκοι, otl Ισχυροί ecrre 
/cat ό λόγο'ζ \_Tov θεον^ εν νμΐν μένει καΐ 

15 νενικηκατε τον πονηρόν. Μτ) αγαπάτε τον 
κόσμον μηΒε τα εν τω κόσμω. εάν τις 
ayaTTo, τον κόσμον, ουκ εστίν η ά'χαπτ^ του 

ι6 πατρός εν αντω• otl παν το εν τω κόσμω, 
η επιθυμία τη<ς σαρκός καΐ -η eVt^f/xta των 
οφθαλμών και rj άλαζονία του βίου, ουκ 
έστιν εκ του πατρός, αλλά εκ του κόσμου 

17 εστίν και ό κόσμος παράγεται καΐ η επι- 
θυμία [αύτου], 6 δε ποιών το θέλημα του 
θεού μένει εις τον αΙώνα. 

ι8 Παιδία, εσχάτη ώρα εστίν, καΐ καθώς 
ήκούσατε ότι αντίχριστος έρχεται, καΐ νυν 
αντίχριστοι πολλοί γεγόνασιν όθεν γινώ- 

19 σκομεν ότι εσχάτη ώρα εστίν. έζ ημών 
έζηλθαν, αλλ' ουκ ήσαν εζ ημών εΐ γαρ 
έζ ημών ήσαν, μεμενηκεισαν αν μεθ^ ημών 
αλλ' iVa φανερωθώσιν ότι ουκ εισίν πάντες 

2ο εζ ημών. καΐ ύμεΐς χρίσμα έχετε άπο του 

21 άγιου' οΓδατ€ πάντες — ^ ουκ έγραφα ύμϊν 

1 καΐ οΊ'δατ€ πάντα. 



π.] SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION. 95 

OTL ουκ οιδατε την άληθζίαν, αλλ' on ο'ίΒατβ 
avTTJu, καΐ otl τταν ι/ζευδος ίκ της άληθβίας 
ουκ eaTiv. Tts ίστιν ο χΐιβνστης ei μη 22 

ο αρνονμβνο<; otl Ιησούς ουκ ^στιν 6 χρι- 
στός ; ούτος έστίν 6 αντίχριστος, 6 αρνού- 
μενος τον πατ€ρα καΐ τον νΐόν. ττας 6 23 
αρνούμενος τον νΐον ovSe τον πάτερα βχει• 
ο ομολόγων τον νΐον καΐ τον πάτερα evet. 
Ύμεΐς ο ηκούσατε απ' άρχης, εν νμΐν με- 24 
νέτω• εαν εν νμΐν μείνη ο απ άρχης ηκού- 
σατε, καί νμεις εν τω νΐω καΐ [eV] τω 
πατρί μενεΐτβ. καΐ αντη εστίν η επαγγε- 25 
λια ην α ντο 9 επηγγείλατο ημΐν, την ζωην 
την αΐώνιον. Ταύτα έγραφα νμΐν περί 26 

των πλανώντων νμας. καΐ νμεις το χρίσμα 27 
ο ελάβετε απ' αντον μένει εν νμΐν, και ου 
χρείαν έχετε Ινα τις ΒιΒάσκη υμάς- αλλ' 
ώς το αντον χρίσμα 8ί^άσκει νμας περί 
πάντων, και αληθές εστίν καΐ ονκ εστίν 
ψευδός/ και καθώς ε^ί^αζεν νμας, μένετε 
εν αντω. Και ννν, τεκνία, μένετε εν αντω, 28 
ίνα εαν φανερωθη σχωμεν παρρησίαν και 
μη αίσχννθωμεν απ' αντον εν τη παρονσία 
αντον. εαν εΐοητε ότι δίκαιος εστίν, γινώ- 29 

1 ύμάί, άλλα το . . . ψβΰδοί • 



g6 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. [ill. 

σκέτε otl^ πας 6 ττοιων την ^ίκαιοσννην έζ 
αντον γεγεννηταυ. 
Ι *ΐδετ€ ττοταπην άγάπην οε^ωκεν η/χΐν 6 
ττατηρ ϊνα τέκνα θεού κληθώμεν, και εσμεν. 
δια τούτο 6 κόσμος ον γινώσκεί ημάς οτι 

2 ονκ εγνω αυτόν. 'Αγαπητοί, νυν τέκνα θεού 
εσμεν, κα\ ονπω εφανερώθη τί. εσόμεθα. 
οΐ^αμεν otl εαν φανερωθη όμοιοι αντω εσο- 

3 μέθα, ότι όχ^όμεθα αντον καθώς εστίν, και 
πας 6 ε\ων την βλτηδα ταύτην επ' αντω 
άγνίζει εαντόν καθώς εκείνος αγνός εστίν. 

4 Πας 6 ποιών την αμαρτίαν και την ανομιαν 

5 ποιεί, και η αμαρτία εστίν η ανομία, και 
οΐόατε ότι εκείνος εφανερώθη ϊνα τας αμαρ- 
τίας αρη, καΐ αμαρτία εν αντω ονκ εστίν. 

6 πας 6 εν αντω μένων ονχ^ άμαρτανει• πας 
6 αμαρτάνων ονχ εώρακεν αντον ούδε εγνω- 

7 κεν αντόν. Ύεκνία, μηοείς πΧανατω νμας • 
ό ποιων την ^ικαιοσύι^ην δίκαιος εστίν, 

8 καθώς εκείνος δίκαιος εστίν 6 ποιών την 
αμαρτίαν εκ τον διαβόλου εστίν, οτι απ 
αρχής 6 8ιάβο\ος άμαρτανει. εις τοντο 
εφανερώθη 6 νΙος τον θεον ινα Χνση τα 

9 έργα τον ^ιαβόλον. Ώας ό γεγεννη- 

1 καΐ. 



III.] SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION. 97 

μένο^ €κ τον θεον αμαρτίαν ου TTOtet, ort 
σπέρμα αυτοί) εν αύτω μένει^ καΐ ου Swa- 
ταί αμαρτάνειν, οτι €κ τον θβον yeyevvy]TaL. 
ev τούτω φανερά εστίν τά τέκνα του θεού ίο 
και τά τέκνα του 8ίαβόλου • ττά<ς 6 μη 
ττοιων ζίκαιοσννην ονκ έστιν εκ τον θεον, 
καΐ ό μη άγαττων τον ά^ελφον αντον. οτι 1 1 
αντη εστίν η αγγελία ην ηκονσατε απ' 
άρ-χΎΪς, Ινα άγαττωμεν άλΧηλους • ου καθώς ιζ 
ΚαΙν εκ του πονηρού ην καΐ έσφα^εν τον 
ά^εΧφον αυτού • καΐ γάριν τίνος έσφαζεν 
αυτόν; ότι τά έργα αύτου πονηρά ην, τά 
δε του αδελφού αύτοΰ δίκαια. 

Μη θαυμάζετε, αδελφοί, εΐ μισεί υμάς 6 13 
κόσμος. ημεΐς ο'ίΒαμεν οτι μεταβεβηκα- 14 
μεν εκ του θανάτου εΙς την ζωην, οτι άγα- 
πωμεν τους αδελφούς' 6 μη αγαπών μένει 
εν τω θανάτω. πάς 6 μισών τον ά^ελφον ΐζ 
αύτου άνθ ρωποκτόνος εστίν, και otSare ότι 
πάς άνθρωποκτόνος ούκ έγει ζωην αΐώνιον 
εν αύτω μένουσαν. Έν τούτω εγνώκα- ι6 

μεν την άγάπην, ότι εκείνος ύπερ ημών την 
\ΡυχΎ)ν αύτου έθηκεν • κα\ ημείς οφείλομεν 
ύπερ τών ά8εΧφών τάς φυχ^άς ^eu-at. ος ιη 
δ' αν έ)(Ύ) τον βίον του κόσμου και θεωρη 

Η 



98 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK, [ill., IV. 

Tou άοεΧφορ αυτού γ^ρύαν άγοντα καί 
κΧειστ) τα σπλάγχνα αυτού ιχττ' αύτου, 
πώς Ύ) αγάπη του θεού μένει iu αύτω ; 

1 8 TeKuia, μη άγαπωμεν λόγω μη^ε τη 
γλώ(τση άλλα εν ^ργψ καΐ άληθεία. 

19 Ει/ τούτω γνωσόμεθα otl εκ της αληθείας 
εσμέν, κα\ έμπροσθεν αυτού πείσομεν την 

2ο καρ^ίαν ημών ότι εάν καταγινώσκη ημών 
η καρδία, ότι μείζων εστίν 6 θεός της 

21 καρδίας ημών και γινώσκει πάντα. ^Αγα- 
πητοί, εάν η Kaphia μη καταγινώσκη, παρ- 

22 ρησίαν εχομεν προς• τον θεόν, και ο αν 
αιτωμεν λαμβάνομεν άπ αυτού, ότι τάς 
εντοΧάς αυτού τηρουμεν καΐ τα αρεστά 

23 ενώπιον αυτού ποιούμεν. καί αύτη εστίν 
η εντολή αυτού, ίνα πιστεύσωμεν^ τω ονό- 
ματι τού νιου αυτού Ιησού Χ,ριστού και 
άγαπώμεν άλληλου;, καθώς εΒωκεν εντολην 

24 ημΐν. και ο τηρώ^ τ ας εντολας αυτού εν 
αύτω μένει και αύτος εν αύτω • καΐ εν 
τούτω γινώσκομεν οτι μένει εν ημΙν, εκ τού 
πνεύματος ου ημϊν εΒωκεν. 

ι "Αγαπητοί, μη παντι πνεύματι πιστεύετε, 
αλλά δοκιμάζετε τά πνεύματα ει εκ τού 

^ τΓίστΐύωμΐν. 



IV.] SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION. 99 

Oeov ecrrtV, otl πολλοί χΡβυΒοιτροφηταί i^e- 
λ-ηλνθασιν εις τον κ6(τμον, Έ^ν τοντω ζ 

γίνώσκ€τ6 το πΐ'βνμα τον θεον' τταν πρενμα 
ο ομολογεί Ιησονν άριστον iu σαρκί έλη- 
λνθότα^ έκ τοΐ) θεού εστίν, καΐ παν πνεύμα 3 
δ μη ομολογεί' τον Ιησουν εκ τον θεον 
ονκ εστίν καΧ τοντό εστίν το τον άντι- 
'χ^ρίστον, ο άκηκόατε ότι ερχ^εται, καΐ ννν 
εν τω κόσμω εστίν η^η. Ύμεις εκ 4 

τον θεον εστε, τεκνία, και νενικηκατε αυ- 
τού?, ΟΤΙ μείζων εστίν 6 εν νμΐν η 6 εν τω 
κόσμω' αντοί εκ τον κόσμον εισίν οια 5 
τοντο εκ τον κόσμον λαλονσιν και 6 κόσμος 
αντων ακούει. * ημείς εκ τον θεον εσμεν 6 
ο γινώσκων τον θεον άκονει ημών, ος ονκ 
εστίν εκ τον θεον ονκ άκονει ημών. εκ 
τούτον γινωσκομεν το πνεύμα της αλη- 
θείας καΐ το πνεύμα της πλάνης. 

Αγαπητοί, άγαπωμεν άλληλονς, οτι η η 
αγάπη εκ τον θεον εστίν, καΧ πάς ό άγαπώζ^ 
εκ τον θεον γεγεννηται και γινώσκει τον 
θεόν. 6 μη ayaTroji' ονκ εγνω τον θεόν, 8 
ότι 6 θεός αγάπη εστίν, εν τούτω έφανε- g 
ρώθη η αγάπη τον θεον εν ημΖν, οτι τον 

1 ίληλυθβναι. ' " Xvei. 



lOO ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. [iV. 

vlov avTov rov μονογενή άπβσταΧκεν 6 
θεός εΙς τον κόσμον ίνα ζησωμεν δι' αντον. 
ΙΟ εν τοντω εστίν η αγάπη, ούχ^ otl ημείς ηγα- 
πηκαμεν τον θεόν, αλλ' otl αυτός ηγάπησεν 
ημάς καΐ απεστειΚεν τον νΐον αυτού Ιλασμον 

11 περί των αμαρτιών ημών. Αγαπητοί, 
εΐ οΰτως ο θεός ηγάπησεν ημάς, καΐ ημείς 

12 οφείλομεν αλλήλους αγατται^. θεον ουδείς 
πώποτε τεθεαται • εάν άγαπώμεν αλλήλους, 
6 θεός εν ημΐν μέ'^ει καΐ η αγάπη αυτού 

13 τετελειωμενη εν ημΖν εστίν, εν τούτω γινώ- 
σκομεν otl εν αύτω μενομεν καΐ αύτος iv 
ημΐν, OTL εκ του πνεύματος αύτοΰ ^εΒωκεν 

14 ημΐν. Και ημείς τεθεάμεθ'α καΐ μαρτυρού- 
μεν ΟΤΙ 6 πατήρ απεσταλκεν τον νΐον σω- 

15 τήρα τοΰ κόσμου, ος εάν ομολογηση otl 
'Ιησούς [Χριστός] εστίν 6 υίος του θεού, 
ο θεός εν αύτω μένει κα\ αύτος εν τω θεω. 

ι6 ΚαΙ ημείς εγνώκαμεν καί πεπιστεύκαμεν 
την άγάπην ην έχει 6 θεός εν ημΐν. Ο 

θεός αγάπη εστίν, καΐ 6 μένων εν τη αγα7ΓΤ7 
εν τω θεω μει-'ει καΐ 6 θεός εν αύτω [/xeVet]. 

17 'El•* τούτω τετελείωται η αγάπη μεθ' ημών, 
ινα παρρησίαν εγωμεν εν τη ήμερα της 
κρίσεως, otl καθώς εκείνος εστίν και ημεΐς 



IV., v.] SELECTIONS FOR TR.4NSL.VnON. ΙΟΙ 

ecr/xev iu τω κόσμω τούτω, φόβος ουκ ι8• 
€στιν Ιν TTj ayanrj, αλλ' -η τέλεια αγάπη 
βζω βάλλβί τον φόβον, ΟΤΙ 6 φόβος κόλα- 
(TLU e^et, 6 oe φοβούμενος ου τετελειωται 
kv rfi οίγάπΎ). Άμβΐς αγαπωμερ, οτι αυτός 19' 
πρώτος ηγάπΎ}(Τ€ν ημάς. εάν τις ειπη οτι ao 
Αγαπώ τον θεόν, καΐ τον οίΒελφον αυτοΰ 
μίση, φεύστης εστίν • 6 yap μη αγαττώι^ 
τον άΒελφον αύτοΰ ον εώρακεν, τον θεον ον 
ου^ εώρακεν ου δύναται αγαπαι^. κα\ ταυ- 2ΐ 
την την εντοΚην εγομεν απ' αντον, Ινα 6 
αγαπώι/ τον θεον άγαττα καΐ τον άΒελφον 
αυτού. 

Πας ο πιστεύων οτι Ίησοΰς εστίν 6 ι 
"χ^ριστος εκ του θεού γεγεννηται, καΐ πας 
6 αγαττώι^ τον γεννησαντα άγαπα τόι^ 
γεγεννημενον εζ αυτού, εν τούτω γινώ- ζ 
σκομεν ο'τι άγαπωμεν τα τέκνα του θεοΰ, 
όταν τον θεον άγαπώμεν καΐ τάς εντοΧάς 
αύτου ποιωμεν αύτη yap εστίν η αγάπη 3 
του θεού ϊνα τάς εντολάς αυτού τηρωμεν, 
και αί ει^τολαι αυτού βαρεϊαι ουκ είσίν, 
ότι πάν ΤΌ γεγεννημενον εκ τού θεού νικά 4 
τον κόσμον. καΐ αύτη εστίν η νίκη η 
νικησασα τον κόσμον, η πίστις ημών τίς $ 



I02 ESSENTIALS OP NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. [v. 

ecTTLu [oe] ό νικών τον κόίτμον el μη 6 
πιστενων otl Ίησονς εστίν 6 νΙος του 

6 0€ov ; Οντός Ιστιν 6 Ιλθων δι' ύδατος 
και αίματος, Ίησονς Χριστός- ουκ iv τω 
υδατι μόνον^ αλλ' ev τω νδαη καΐ iv τω 
αιματί' και το ττνβνμά εστίν το μαρτυρούν 

7 OTL το Ίτνευμά εστίν -η αλήθεια, οτι τρεις 

8 εισιν ot μαρτυρουντες, το πνεύμα και το 
ν^ωρ καΐ το αί^α, και ot τρεΐς εΙς το ε^ 

9 eicrti'. et την μαρτνρίαν των ανθρώπων 
Χαμβάνομεν, η μαρτυρία του θεού μείζων 
εστίν, OTL αύτη εστίν η μαρτυρία του θεού 

ΙΟ OTL μεμαρτύρηκεν περί του υΙου αυτού. 6 
πιστεύων εΙς τον υΐον του θεού εχ^ευ την 
μαρτυριαν εν αυτω'• ο μη τηστεύων τω 
θεω^ \\)εύστην πεποίηκεν αυτόν, otl ου ττεπί- 
στενκεν εις την μαρτυρίαν ην μεμαρτύρη- 

11 κεν 6 θεός περί του υιού αυτοΰ. καΐ αυτή 
εστίν η μαρτυρία, οτι ζωην αιώνιον ε3ωκεν 
ο θεός ημΐν, καΐ αυτή η ζωη εν τω υ'ιω 

12 αυτού εστίν, ο εχ^ων τον υιον e^et την 
ζωην ο μη εγων τον υιον του θεού την 

13 ζωην ουκ εγει. Ύαυτα εγρα^^α υμϊν 
ίνα εΐ^ητε οτι ζωην εχ^ετε αΐώ.'ΐον, τοις 

^ μόνφ. 2 αύτφ | t . . . t 



v.] SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION. I 03 

τηστενουσιν εις το όνομα τον νΐον του 
θεον. καΐ αντη ίστΧν τι παρρησία ην e^o- 14 
μεν προς αυτόν, ότι iav tl αΐτώμεθα κατά 
το θέλημα αυτοί) ακούει ημών. καΐ εάν ι^ 
οιοαμεν ότι ακούει ημών ο εάν αΐτώμεθα, 
οΐ^αμεν ότι εγομεν τά αιτήματα α ητηκα- 
μεν απ αύτου. ^Άάν τις ihy τον άΒελφον ι6 
αύτου αμαρτάνοντα άμαρτίαν μη προς θά- 
νατον, αιτήσει, καΐ ζώσει αύτω ζωήν, τοις 
αμαρτανουσιν μη προς θάνατον. εστίν 
αμαρτία προς θάνατον • ου περί εκείνης 
λέγω ινά ερώτηση. πάσα αδικία αμαρτία ly 
εστίν, και εστίν αμαρτία ου προς θάνατον, 
οιοαμεν ότι πάς 6 γεγεί'νημενος εκ του ι8 
θεού ου γ άμαρτάνει, αλλ' ό γεννηθείς εκ 
του θεού τηρεί αυτόν, και ό πονηρός ούγ 
άπτεται αύτου. οϊ8αμεν ότι εκ του θεού ig 
εσμεν, και ο κόσμος όλος εν τω πονηρω 
κείται, οιοαμεν 8e ότι 6 υΙός του θεού 2ο 
ηκει, και ζεΒωκεν ημΐν Siavoiav ίνα γινώ- 
σκομεν τον άληθινόν καί εσμεν εν τω 
άληθινω, εν τω υΐω αυτού Ιησού Χριστώ, 
ούτος εστίν 6 αληθινός θεός και ζωη αιώ- 
νιος. Ύεκνία, φυλάγατε εαυτά άπο των ζι 
ειδώλων. 



104 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK, 

Mat. 5 :3-i2. 

3 Μακάριοι ol τττωχοί τω πνβνματν, on αύτων 

έστΙν Ύ) /3ασιλ€ΐα των ουρανών. 

4 μακάριοι οΐ ir€v6oiivT€C, ort αντοί τταρακλη- 

θήοονται. 

5 μακάριου οι TrpaciC, ort αντοΙ κληρονομήοουοι 

την "γήν. 

6 μακάριοι οι πεινώντες και οιφώντες ττην 

8ικαιοσ-ννην, οτι αυτοί ^ορτασθησον- 
ται. 

7 μακάριοι οι βλεημονες, οτι αύτοι έλεηθη- 

σονται. 

8 μακάριοι οΐ καθαροί τη καρδία, οτι αύτοι 

τον θίον oifjovTai. 

9 μακάριοι οι βίρηνοποιοί, οτι [αύτοι] υίοι 

θεού κΧηθήσονται. 
ΙΟ μακάριοι οι ^ε^ιωγμενοι ένεκεν οικαιοσύ- 
νης, οτι αυτών εστίν η βασ-ιΚε'ια τών 
ουρανών. 

11 μακάριοι εστε όταν 6ν6ΐδίσωσ-ιι^ ύμά'; και 

διώ^ωσιΐ' κα\ εΐπωσιν πάν πονηρον καθ* 

12 υμών φευ^όμενοι ένεκεν εμού• χαίρετε 
και άγαλλιά(τθε, οτι 6 μίσχος υμών 
πολύς εν τοϊς ούρανοϊς• ούτως γαρ έοίω- 
^αν τους προφτ^τας τους προ υμών. 



selections for translation. • io5 

Mat. 6:9-15. 
Ούτω? ovv προσενγ^σθς. u/xet? 9 

Ylarep ■ημών 6 iv τοις ovpavols' 
Άγιασθητω το ονομά σον 

έλθάτω Tj βασιΚζία σον, ίο 

γβνηθητω το θβλημά σον, 

ώς iv ονραρω καΐ inl γηζ' 
Tou αρτον -ημών τον ίπιονσιον ιι 

δο? -ημίν σήμερον 
/cat αφε<ζ ημΐν τά οφζίΚ.'ήματα "ημών, ΐ2 

ct>s και ημβΐς άφηκαμεν τοις οφείλεται? 
'ημών 
και μτ) βίσβνεγκτης ημάς ζΐς ττβιρασμόν, 13 

αλλά ρνσαι ημάς από τον ττονηρον. 

*Κάν γαρ άφητβ τοις ανθρώπους τά τταρα- 14 
πτώματα αντών, άφησευ και νμίν 6 πατήρ 
νμών 6 ονράνιος' lav oe μη άφητ€ τοϊς 15 
άνθρώποις [τά παραπτώματα αύτωΐ'], ούδε 
ο πατήρ νμών αφήσει τά παραπτώματα, 
νμών. 

Luke: Chapter 15. 

Ήσαν δε αύτω εγγίζοντες πάντες οι ι 
τελώναι και οΐ αμαρτωλοί άκονειν αντον. 
καΧ δί.εγόγγυζοι/ οι τε ΦαρισαΓοι και οι ζ 



I06 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. [XV. 

γραμματ€ΐ<ζ λεγοντβς on Ούτος αμαρτω- 
λούς προσΒβχ^εται και avueaOUL αντοΐς. 

3 eirreu δε προς αντονς tyju παραβολην ταύ- 

4 την λέγων Τις άνθρωπος Ιζ νμων έχων 
έκατον πρόβατα καΐ άπολ€(τας e£ αντων tv 
ον καταλείπει τα ένενήκοντα εννέα εν τ-η 
ερημω καΐ πορεύεται επΙ το άπολωλος έως 

5 ευρΎ) αυτό: και εύρων επίτίθησιν επΙ τον^ 

6 ώμους avrov γαίρω^', καΐ έλθών εΙς τον οίκον 
(τυνκαλεΐ τους φίλους και τους γείτονας, 
λέγων αντοΐς "ϊ,ννχ^άρητε μοι οτι εϋρον το 

7 πρόβατυν μου το άπολωλός. λέγω ύμΐν 
ΟΤΙ όντως χαρά εν τω ονρανω έσται επΙ 
ενι αμαρτωΧω μετανοουντι -η επΙ ένενή- 
κοντα εννέα δίκαιοι? οϊτινες ον χρείαν 

8 έγουσιν μετανοίας. Η τίς γννη ^ραχμας 
έγονσα Βέκα, εαν άπολέσΎ) ^ραχμην μίαν, 
ούγι απτει λνχνον καΐ σαροΐ την οικίαν 

9 και ζητεί επιμελώς έως ον ενρη ; και 
ενροντα συνκαλει τας φίλας και γείτονας 
λέγονσ-α %ννχάρητέ μοι οτι ενρον την 

ΙΟ οραχμην ην άττώλείτα. όντως, λέγω νμίν, 
γίνεται χαρά ενώπιον των αγγέλων τον θεον 

11 επι ενι αμαρτωλω μετανοονντι. Εΐττε'^ 

12 δε Ανθρωπος τις ειχεν ονο νιους, και είπεν 



XV.] , SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION. IO7 

6 vecOT€po<? αυτών τω ττατρί ΤΙάτερ, οός μοι 
το επιβάλλον μέρος της ουσίας• 6 δε διεΓ- 
\eu αντοΐς τον βίον. και μβτ ου πολλας 13 
ημέρας συναγαγωρ πάντα"" 6 νεώτερος υιός 
άπεπτη μη (τεν εις -χωράν μακράν, και εκεί 
^ιεσκόρπισεν την ουσίαν αυτού ζών άσω- 
τως. 8απανη(ταντος δε αυτού πάντα εγε- 14 
νετο λίμος Ισχυρά κατά την χώραν εκεινην, 
καΐ αύτος ηρζατο ύστερεΐσθαι. και πορευ- 15 
θείς εκολλήθη ενί των πολιτών της χώρας 
εκείνης, και επεμχΐιεν αυτόν εις τους αγρούς 
αυτού βόσκειν χοίρους' κα\ επεθύμει χορ- 1 6 
τασθηναι εκ των κερατίων ων ησθιον οι 
χοίροι, και ουδείς ε'δίδου αυτω. εις εαυτόν ly 
δε ελθών εφη Πόσοι μίσθιοι του πατρός 
μου περισσεύονται άρτων, εγώ δε λιμω ώοε 
άπόλλυμαΐ' άναστας πορεύσομαι προς τον ι8 
πάτερα μου και ερώ αυτω ΥΙατερ, ημαρ- 
τον εις τον ουρανον και ενώπιον σου, ουκετι 
εΙμι άζιος κληθηναι υΙος σου• ποιησον με 19 
ώς ενα των μισθίων σου. Και άναστας 2ο 
ηλθεν προς τον πάτερα εαυτού. ετι δε 
αυτοί) μακράν απέχοντος ει8εν αυτόν 6 
πατήρ αυτού και εσπλαγχνίσθη καΐ ορα- 



I08 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. ^ [xv. 

μων ineneaeu ini τον τράχιηΧον αντον καΐ 

21 κατζφίλησβν αυτόν, ζίπεν δε ό υιός αντω 
rictrep, -ημαρτον et9 τον ονρανον /cat βνώ- 
τηόν σον, ονκετι εΙμΙ οί^ίος κληθηναί νίός 
σον [• ττοίησόν μζ ως eva των μισθίων 

22 σου]. einev δε ό πατήρ προς τους δού- 
λους αντον Ύο,χν έζ€νζγκατ€ στολην την 
πρώτην καΙ εισδύσατε αντόν, καΐ δότε δακτύ- 
λων εις την χεΓρα αύτου και υποδήματα εις 

23 τονς πόδας, καΐ φέρετε τον μόσγον τον 
σιτεντόν, θνσατε καΐ φαγόντες ενφρανθω- 

24 μεν, ΟΤΙ οντος ο νΙός μον νεκρός ην καΐ 
ανεζησεν^ ην άπολωλως καΐ ενρεθη. ΚαΙ 

25 ηρζαντο ενφραίνεσθαι. ην δε ό υιός αύτοΰ 
ό πρεσβύτερος εν ay ρω' καΐ ως εργόμενος 
ηγγισεν τη οικία, ηκονσεν σνμφωνίας καΐ 

26 -χορών, καΐ προσκαλεσάμενος ενα των παί- 

27 δω!^ επννθάνετο τί αν ειη ταύτα • ό δε ειπεν 
αντω OTL Ό αδελφός σον ηκει, καΐ εθνσεν 
6 πατήρ σον τον μόσχον τον σιτεντόν, οτυ 

28 νγυαίνοντα αντον άπελαβεν. ώργίσθη δε 
καΐ ουκ ηθελεν είσελθεΐν. 6 δε πατήρ αύ- 

29 τον εζελθων παρεκαΚει αντόν. 6 δε αποκρι- 
θείς ειττει^ τω πατρί αντον Ιδού τοσαυτα 

1 '{ζτισξν. 



XV.] SELECTIONS FOR TRANSLATION. IO9 

err) δουλεύω trot και ούΒεττοτε ΙντοΚιην σον 

Ίταρηλθον, καί βμοί ovSeVore. έδωκα? epL- 

φον^ Ινα μ€τα των φίλων μου βνφρανθω• 

ore δε ό υιός σου οντο'ζ 6 καταφαγών σου 30 

τον βίον μβτά^ ττορνών ηλθεν, ξθυσας αύτω 

τον σιτευτον μόσ^ον. 6 δε είπει^ αύτω 31 

Ύεκνον, συ πάντοτε μβτ εμού ει, καΐ πάντα 

τα ζμά σά ς,στιν • βύφρανθηναί δε καί 32 

^aprjvai έδει, on ό άδελί^ός σου ούτος 

νβκρος ην καΐ εζησεν, καΐ άπολωλως καΐ 

ευρέθη. 

Ι Cor. : Chapter 13. 

Εάν rat? γΧώσσαυς των ανθρώπων λαλώ ι 
καΐ των αγγέλων, άγάπην δε μη εγω, γέγονα 
χαλκός ηγων η κυμβαλον άλαλάζον. καν 2 
εχω προφητείαν καΐ ειδώ τα μυστήρια 
πάντα καί πάσαν την γνώσιν, καν εγω 
ττασαι^ την πίστιν ώστε ορη μεθιστάνειν, 
άγάπην δε μη εχω, ουθέν ειμί. καν φω- 3 
μίσω πάντα τα υπάρχοντα μου, καν παραδω 
το σώμα μου, ίνα καυχησωμαι, άγάπην δε 
μη εχω, ούοεν ωφελούμαι. Ή αγάπη μα- 4 
κροθυμεί, χρηστευεται, η αγάπη ου ζηλοΐ, 
ου περπερεύεται, ου φυσιουται, ουκ άσχη- 5 

^ έρίφιον, 2 τζιν. 



no ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. [xill. 

/xovet, ov ζητβΐ τά έαντης, ου παροξύνεται, 

6 ου λθΎίζ€ται το κακόν, ου χαίρευ έπΙ τύ) 

7 άδικ-ια, συνγαίρει δε tyj άληθβία • πάντα 
crreyet, πάντα πίστευα, πάντα ελπίζει, πάντα 

8 υπομένει. Ή αγάπη ούΒεποτε πίπτει, είτε 
οε προφητεΐαι, καταργηθησονται • είτε 
γλώίτσαι, πανσονται • εϊτε γνώσις, καταρ- 

9 γηθησεται. εκ μέρους γαρ γινώσκομεν 
ΙΟ και εκ μέρους προφητεύομεν • όταν δε ελ^ι^ 

το τελειον, το εκ μέρους καταργηθησεται. 

11 οτε ημην νήπιος, ελάλουν ώς νήπιος, εφρό- 
νουν ως νηπιος, ελογιζόμην ως νηπιος • οτε 
γεγονα άνηρ, κατήργηκα τά του νηπίου. 

12 βλεπομεν γαρ άρτι Si εσόπτρου εν atj'ty- 
ματι, τότε δε πρόσωπον προς πρόσωπον • 
άρτι γινώσκω εκ μέρους, τότε δε επιγνώ- 

13 σομαι καθώς καΐ επεγνώσθην. νυνί δε 
μείνει πίστις, ελπίς, αγάπη• τά τρία ταύτα, 
μείζων δε τούτων η αγάπη. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



ace. 




accusative. 




viasc. 




masculine. 


act. 


= 


active. 




mid. 


= 


middle. 


adj. 


= 


adjective. 




neut. 


= 


neuter. 


aor. 


= 


aorist. 




710111. 


= 


nominative. 


art. 


= 


article. 




opt. 


= 


optative. 


cf. 


= 


confer, compare 




part. 


= 


participle. 


dat. 


= 


dative. 




pass. 


= 


passive. 


e.g. 


= 


exempli gratia, 


for 


perf 


= 


perfect. 






the sake of 


ex- 


pers. 


= 


person. 






ample. 




pliir. 


= 


plural. 


fern. 


= 


feminine. 




poss. 


= 


possessive. 


flit. 


= 


future. 




pred 


= 


predicate. 


gen. 


= 


genitive. 




prep. 


= 


preposition. 


itnpers. 


= 


impersonal. 




pres. 


= 


present. 


hid. 


= 


indicative. 




prill. 


= 


principal. 


indecl. 


= 


indeclinable. 




pron. 


= 


pronoun. 


indir. 


= 


indirect. 




rel. 


= 


relative. 


inf. 


= 


infinitive. 




sc. . 


= 


scilicet, under 


imp. 


= 


imperative. 








stood. 


imperf 


= 


imperf. 




sing. 


= 


singular. 


K.T.\. 


= 


και τα λοίττά, et 


ce- 


stibj. 


= 


subject. 






tera. 




suhjv. 


= 


subjunctive. 


lit. 


= 


literally 




voc. 


= 


vocative. 



NOTES. 

— ♦— 

The First Epistle of John. 

CHAPTER I. 

1. Ο HN ΑΠ' APXH2 = οψ άπ άρχ^ς. The breath- 
ing and accent are not written on capitals, o, the antece- 
dent of the rel. pron. is often omitted, άκηκόαμεν, 2 perf. 
act. ind. of ακούω, prin. parts §88. A few verbs beginning 
with a, €, or ο have what is called Af/i'c reduplication ; 
I.e. a reduplication which is the first two letters prefixed to 
the theme, άκ-ηκοα = άκ-ήκου-α, υ is dropped between two 
vowels. €ωράκαμ€ν, learn prin. parts of ο'ράω, § 88. This 
verb most commonly has both the temporal and syllabic 
augment, οφθαλμόίς, § 157. -ημών, lit. of us. The pers. 
pron. is often used for the poss. pron. εψηλάφησαν, ψηλα- 
φάω. τηζ the art. may be used with absiract nouns in 
Greek, and ofttimes with concrete nouns, where it cannot 
be translated. 

2. Observe the change in tenses, aor., perf, pres. For 
τψ repeated after ζ^την, see 64. προ?, § 159. 

3• καί νμΐν, also to you, not as in Eng. to you also. 
Ιχ,,τε, §119. /Λ£^', §12. 

4. ^ πεπληρωμίνη, perf. pass, subjv. See λυω, § 56. The 
perfects made thus from ίίμί, a///, and the perf. part, are 
called pcriplirastic forms. 



NOTES. 113 

5. εστίν, note the accent. Always emphatic when on 
the penult, ον^εμία, for the double negative, see § 142. 

6. iav, § 124. εί,'ττω/Αεν, learn prin. parts of φημ(, § 88. 

8. εαυτοί)?, for the 3 pers. used for the i pers. cf. 213, 
latter part. 

9. άφβ, 2 aor. act. subjv. of άφίημι, § 66. For the sense 
of the aor. here and in καθαρίστ], see § 114. 

10. For the two ace. cf. § 161. 

CHAPTER 2. 

1. τεκνία is voc. μη άμάρτητε, for neg. see § 119. The 
verb is 2 aor. act. subjv. of άμαρτάνω, learn prin. parts § 88. 
See § 83, i for class of verbs. 

2. ού μόνον . . . αλλά και, not only . . . but also. 

3. εγνωκα/χεν, prin. parts of γινώσ-κω. 

4. μΎ] τηρών is equal to a condition, //" one does not 
keep, hence the neg. μη. § 137. 

5• OS δ' αν τηρη, § 126. αΧηθίος, for the formation of 
adverbs, cf. 227. 

6. μεναν, the inf. depends upon λε'γων. See § 131 for 
the inf. in indirect discourse, αυτός, intensive, ττεριπα- 
τεΓν, after οφείλει. 

η. είχετε, what tense? 37, 9, note. 

9. εΓναι, cf. note on v. 6. 

12. άφεωνταί, see under άφίημι, § 66. The perf. denotes 
the completion of the act, and equals here "stand forgiven." 

13. τον = αύτον. τον ττονηρόν, note the gender. The 
art. and an adj. are thus often used substantively. 

15. μη, § 138. τα, i.e. the goods or affairs of the world. 
The general use of the neut. is to be noted. 

16. Ttav το, explained by the following clauses. 

18. και vvv, even noiu. γεγόνασι., 2 perf. act. of γίνομαι. 
Theme γεν changes to γον. Cf. 2 perf of λεί-π-ω, § 57. 

I 



114 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

19. ΙζηΧθαν = ίξ-ήλθον, prill, parts of έ'ρχομαι. The 
I aor. vowel α often appears in the place of the 2 aor. 
variable vowel %. el yap . . . μεθ" ημών, for the condi- 
tion, see § 122 and § 123, latter part, φανερωθωσιν, 175 
and 176. 

22. ei μη, unless, except, as one word. 

23. και, also. 

24. νμ{ί<ί 6 κ.τ.λ. = τοΰτο Iv ΰμίν μίν€τω ο ηκοντατί. 
This is a common construction in John. Not only does the 
relative clause come before the principal clause, but to 
make the expression more emphatic a personal pronoun 
(not used except for emphasis) is thrust before the rela- 
tive, whose antecedent is dropped, μείνη ■ . . /Aevetre, for 
the fut. and aor. of liquid verbs, see 203-208. 

25. έπηγγύΚατο, «ιτ-αγγέλλομαι. 

20. των ττλανωντων, 192, 193. 

27• το χρίσμα, subj. of /xeVet. Cf note on v. 24, above. 
ίλάβίτ€, prin. parts of λαμβάνω, πάντων is neut. αντω, 
masc. 

28. σχωμεν, 2 aor. act. subjv. of 4'χω, § 88. μη, why not 
οϋ? άττ' αυτοί), i.e. shrink in shame from Iit/n. 

29. ά^ητί, learn the subjv. of οίδα, § 68. 

CHAPTER 3. 

1. ιδετ£, cf. 2 aor. of οράω. δεδωκεν, how different from 
the aor. ? κληθωμεν, prin. parts of καλίω. Ιγνω, prin. parts 
of γινώ(Γκω. The long vowel « appears in the 2 aor. ind. 
where in other verbs we find %. 

2. Ισόμζθα, fut. of €ΐμί, § 65. αντω, § 153. 6\ρόμ€θα, see 
οράω. 

5- αρη, αϊρω. For the class of verbs, see § 82, 4. 

7. μη8εΙς, why not ovSels ? § 138. 

8. eZs TovTo,/or l/u's (purpose). 



NOTES. 115 

12. Καιν, Hebrew names of places and names of per- 
sons, unless given a Greek ending, are indeclinable, του 
ΊΓονηρον, masc. ίσφα.ξίν, σφάττω («τφαγ-), § 82, 2. χάριν, 
an improper prep. /or sake of. 

14. μίταβεβήκαμεν, μ€ταβαίνω, prin. parts of βαίνω. 
μ€τά has the sense of over, a change from one place to 
another. Note the strong antithesis between the gen. 
with €K and the ace. with €ts. 

15. μίνονσαν goes with ^ω^ν. Review pres. act. part, 
of λύω, §43. 

1 6. ίθηκε, § 63 and 235, 3, note. Learn prin. parts of 
τίθημι. θάναι = θ€-€ναι, 2 aor. act. inf. The 2 aor. always 
has the simple tkei/ie of the verb. 

17. OS δ' αν ίχη . . . θεωρΫ] . . . κλείστ], § 126. 

1 8. άγαπωμεν, for the mood, see § 113. 

19. γνωσο/χ£^α, γινώσκω. αντου, for the gen. see § 152. 
■ημών, § 151. 

20. μείζων, see μί'γαξ, § 38. της καρδίας, § 150. 

22. δ αν, cf. OS αν. above, ενώττων αντον, § 152. 

23. ονόματι, § 155. εΒωκεν, see note on έ'θηκί, above. 
24• ου where we should expect o. The relative is often 

attracted to the case of its antecedent, when the latter is in 
the gen. or dat. case. 

CHAPTER 4. 

1. εζεΧηΧνθασιν, 2 perf. of «ρΧ^Η'•*'•'•• Cf. γίγόνασ-ι, 
I Jn. 2: 18. 

2. ίληλνθότα, 2 perf. part. Cf. λελυκώβ, § 43. For the 
participle in indirect discourse, where οτι and the indica- 
tive are more common, see § 136. 

3. τον αντίχριστου, §147. άκηκόατε, cf note on i Jn. 
I : I. 

4. ό ev υμΐν, a substantive expression. Note the wide 
use of the article in Greek. 



Il6 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

5. αυτών, § 148. 

9• τον μονογενή, cf. a similar use of the art. and adj. in 
I Jn. 3 : 12. άττίσταλκεν, prin. parts of στίλλω. ζησωμεν, 
how different in mganing from ζώμίν? Cf. 157. 

1 1 . αγαπάν, see § 59 for the inf. of contract verbs, /οία- 
stibscript is regularly omitted here in classical Greek. 

12. reOearat, Ocdo^ai, § 77, 4. 
15. ος eav, § 126, latter part. 

19. άγαττωμεν, not ind. 

20. etTT»;, see under φημ£, in table of irregular verbs. 

21. ayaira, ind. or subjv. ? § 59. 

CHAPTER 5. 

1. τον γεννησαντα . . . τον γεγεννημενον, 192, 193. 

2. δταν άγαπώ/Λ£ν, § 127. 

3- βαρείαι, nom. fem. plur. Adjs. in -vs are rare. 
4. -η νίκη η νικήσασα = η νικήσ-ασ-α νίκη, i/ie victory 
which has conquered. See aor. act. part, of λύω, § 43. 

6. ό ελθών, he who has come; lit. the (one) having 
come, μαρτυρούν, -vpt'ov. Cf. λνω, § 43. 

8. €V, «Is, § 39. 

10. αντώ = €αυτω. 

13. τοις τπστευουσιν, goes back to νμΐν. Obser\^e the 
tense. 

14. αΐτώμεθα, the mid. how different from the act.? 

15. eav οί8αμ€ν, & rare construction, § 124. ο eav, cf. os 
ίάν, I Jn. 4:15. 

16. t8ri, ο'ράω. 

1 8. -γεννηθείς, cf. aor. pass. part, of λύω, § 43. 

20. tva γινωσκομεν, note the mood. § 119. 

21. φνλάζατε, φυλάττω (φυλακ-), § 82, I. εαυτά, 213, 
latter part. Why neut. gender? 



NOTES. 117 

Mat. 5 : 3-12. 
the beatitudes. 

3. μακάριοι is in the pred. position, 64. αυτών, § 147. 

4. παρακληθησονται, τταρακαλέω. See the fut. pass, of 
λύω, § 56. 

g. viol is pred. 

10. 8^8ίω-γΐχίνοι, perf. pass. part, of 5ιώκω. κ, χ change 
to γ before μ. 

11. καθ', against. φ€ν8όμ€νοι may be trans, as an adv. 

Mat. 6 : 9-15. 

THE lord's prayer. 

9. πάτερ, note the case, ό = os «ΐ• άγίασθητω, αγιάζω 
(άγια8-), see 178 and the aor. pass. imp. of λύω, § 56. 

ΙΟ. ΐλθάτω, note the use of the imperative mood in 
commands. For the α in this form, cf. note on i Jn. 2 : 19• 
γζνηθήτω, γίνομαι. έπΙ, see under prep. § 164. 

11. δός, see 2 aor. act. system of 8ί8ωμι, § 63. 

12. άφ€ς, see 2 aor. system of άφίημι, § 66. τοις οφει- 
λίταίς, indir. obj. ; sc. τα όψΕίλήματα. 

13. μη €ΐσ£νΐγκγ]ς, prin. parts of φίρω. For the con- 
struction, see § 117. ρνσαι (ρύομαι), aor. mid. imp. τον 
ττονηρον may be either neut. or masc. as in i Jn. 2:13. 

14. άφητε, see under άψίημι. 

Luke 15. 
the prodigal son. 

I. ήσαν 8e αυτώ εγγ/^οντες = ή'γγιζον Be αντω. This 
use of the part, with «ίμί is a common form of participial 



ri8 ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

expression in the New Testament writers. Perhaps more 
emphatic than the simple imperf. of the verb would be. 
αντω, § 154. 

2. avveaOUL, note the force of <rvv-. What case follows 
this prep. ? 

4. εκατόν, § 39, a. άττολεσας, prin. parts of άιτόλλυμι. 
ατΓολωλος, pres. pass, sense. €vpr), prin. parts of ευρίσκω, 
§ 128, for mood, αυτό, i.e. ττρόβατον. 

6. σννχάρητί, 2 aor. pass. imp. of συνχαίρω. Cf. same 
of φαίνω, § 58. 

y. εσται, § 65. εττι. because of. μετανοοννη, μετανοέω. 
μετά gives the idea of turning about from one stand to 
another. 

8. 8ραχμη, was a Greek coin worth about 18 cents. 
οί'χί. 133, I. 3, note. σαροΓ, for the irregular contraction, 
cf. δηλόω, § 59. εως ου, sc. χρόνου. 
ΙΟ. των αγγέλων, § 153. 

12. νεώτερος, see § 37, ι and note, εττι/ίάλλον, neut. 
part. ; Ji. μοι. SielXev, di-vided ; prin. parts of αίρε'ω. βίον, 
here, means of life, portion. 

13. συναγαγών, συνάγω. The Attic reduplication is 
regularly found in the 2 aor. of this verb. See note on 
I Jn. I : I. Prin. parts of άγω. 

14. δαττανϊ^σαντο? αντον, gen. abs. 194, 10, note. ε->'ε'- 
^tTO, γίνομαι. 

15. τΓορευ^εί?, 179 and 190. ΙκοΧΚηΘη, lit. ίο be glued, 
fastened ; found in the pass, only in the New Testament, 
and with the reflexive sense Join one''s self to. 

16. επε^υ/χει, ειτιθυμε'ω. ων, see note on i Jn. 3:24. 
ή'σθιον, observe the nice use of the imperf. 

17. £ts . . . ελ^ών, just as in English, άρτων, § 149. 
λιμω, § 157. άττόλλνμαί, the action is going on. 

18. άναστας, see 2 aor. system of ϊστημι, § 63. ερώ, a 
fut. with no pres. ; see under ψημί. ημαρτον, άμαρτάνω. 



NOTES. 119 

19. ποίησ-ον, aor. act. imp. Βραμων, prin. parts of τρ€χω. 
€7Γ€πεσεν, Ιιτι-πίιττω. 

22. i^eviyKare, «κ-φίρω. ivSvaare, cf. ENDUE, νποοη- 
ματα, lit. bound (8ίω) undenieath (ΰπό). 

23. ί^αγοΓΓας, prin. parts of Ισ-θίω. ενφρινθωμεν, d- 
φραίνω, for the class of verbs, see § 82, 4. 

26. συμφωνίας, SYMPHONY. For the case, see § 148. 
TL av άη ταντα, what this is. «ϊη is the opt. of εΙμί. For 
the forms of the opt. in the New Testament (and the uses 
of this mood), see §§ 70, 71. The optative is used instead 
of the indicative in indirect question when certainty does 
not exist in the speaker's mind. 

27. άττίλαβεν, note the force of άπό, bac-k. 

28. ηθελον, so always in the New Testament for ϊθελον. 

29. ίδου, ο'ράω, 2 aor. mid. imp. ετη, 4'tos. τταρηλθον, 
observe the force of the prep, as in trans-gress. 

30. καταφαγών, devoured, squandered. 

31. σά is pred. έ'δει, imperf. ; see 244 ; sc. <ri or ημάβ as 
subj. of the infinitives. 



I Cor. 13. 

LOVE. 

1. γε'γονα, γίνομαι. 

2. καν = καΐ ίάν, § 13. £ίδώ, see under οΐδα, § 68. ^e^t- 
στάνείν, § 134. 

3- τά υπάρχοντα = τα ό'ντα ; i.e. all that is, all the 
things I have, τταραδώ, see 2 aor. act. of δίδωμι, § 63. 

\. ζηλόί, cf. δηλόω, § 59. 

y. στε-γεί first means to cover ; then to cover and thus 
keep (7^ what threatens. Hence, hold off against, etidure. 

8. τταύσονται, in the act. to stop some one ; in the mid 
to stop one's self. Hence, cease. 



I20 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

11. ημ,ην = ■^v, mid. end. -μην; for act. -v. Note the 
imperf. tense. See 78. 

12. έτηγνώσομαί, ίττιγινώσ-κω ; tiri adds the idea of WtV/ 
or thorouglily. 

13. μείζων, greater; therefore, t/ie greatest. For the 
case of τούτων, see § 150. 

κανχησωμαι, v. 3, is an aor. mid. subjv. A doubtful 
reading where some editors give a passive form : κανθη- 
σωμΜ (-σο^ααι) from καίω, bum. 



LITERAL TRANSLATION. 



The First Epistle of John, 
chapter i. 

1. That-vv'hich was from beginning, tliat-which we- 
have-heard, that-which we-have-seen Λ\ίΐΗ-ΐΗ6 eyes of-us, 
that-which we-belield and the hands of-us handled, con- 
cerning the word of-the Hfe, — 

2. And the Hfe was-manifested, and we-have-seen, and 
we-bear-witness, and we-proclaim to-you the life the eter- 
nal which (ήτις) was with the Father, and was-manifested 
to-us, — 

3. That-which we-have-seen and have-heard, we-pro- 
claim also to-you, that also you fellowship may-have with 
us : and the fellowship tmly the our with the Father and 
with the Son of-him Jesus Christ : 

4. And these-things write we that the joy of-us may-be 
(having-been-fiUed) full. 

5. And there-is this the announcement which Λve-have- 
heard from him and re-announce to-you, that the God 
light is, and darkness not is in him at-all. 

6. If we-say that fellowship we-have Avith him, and in 
the darkness we-walk, we-Iie and not we-do the truth : 

7. If however in the light we-walk, as he is in the light, 
fellowship we-have with one-another, and the blood of- 
Jesus the Son of him cleanseth us from every sin. 



122 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

8. If we-say that sin not we-have, ourselves \ve-deceive, 
and the truth not is in us. 

g. If we-confess the sins of-us, faithful he-is and 
righteous tliat he-may-remit to-us the sins, and may-cleanse 
us from all unrighteousness. 

lo. If Λve-say that not we -have-sinned, a liar we-make 
him, and the word of-him not is in us. 



CHAPTER 2. 

1. Little-children of-me, these-things write-I to-you, 
that not ye-may-sin. And if any-one sin, an Advocate 
we-have with the Father, Jesus Christ righteous : 

2. And he propitiation is for the sins of-us; not for 
the our and only, but also for whole the world. 

3. And in this Λve-know that we-have-known him, 
if the commandments of-him we-keep. 

4. The-one saying that I-have-known him, and the 
commandments of-him not keeping, a liar is, and in this- 
one the truth not is : 

5. Who however (αν) keeps of-him the word, truly in 
this-one the love of-the God has-been-perfected. In this 
we-know that in-him Ave-are : 

6. The-one saying in him to-abide ought just-as that- 
one walked also himself to-walk. 

7. Beloved, not commandment new I-write to-you, 
but commandment old which you-had from beginning: 
the commandment the old is the word which ye-heard. 

8. Again, commandment new I-write to-you, which- 
thing is true in him and in you, because the darkness is- 
passing-away, and the light the perfect already shines. 

9. The-one saying in the light to-be, and the brother 
of-him hating, in the darkness is until now. 



LITERAL TRANSLATION. I 23 

10. The-one loving the brother of-him in the light 
abides, and oft'ence in him not is. 

11. The-one but hating the brother of-him in the 
darkness is, and in the darkness he-walks, and not he- 
knows where he-goes, because the darkness blinded the 
eyes of-him. 

12. I-write to-you, little-children, because are-reniitted 
to-you the sins on-account-of the name of-him. 

13. I-write to-you, fathers, because you-have-known 
the-one from beginning. I-write to-you, young-men, be- 
cause you-have-conquered the evil-one. 

14. I-wrote to-you, little-children, because you-have- 
known the Father. I-wrote to-you, fathers, because you- 
have-known the-one from beginning. I-wrote to-you, 
young-men, because strong you-are, and the word of-the 
God in you abides, and you-have-conquered the evil-one. 

15. Not love-ye the world, nor the-things in the world. 
If any-one love the world, not is the love of-the Father in 
him. ♦ 

16. Because every-thing the in the world, the lust of- 
the flesh, and the lust of-the eyes, and the vain-glory of- 
the life, not is out-of the Father but out-of the world is. 

17. And the world is-passing-away, and the lust of-it : 
the-one but doing the will of-the God abides into the age. 

18. Little children, last hour is; and just-as ye-heard 
that antichrist is-coming, even now antichrists many have- 
become ; whence we-know that last hour is. 

19. Out-of us they-went-out, but not were-they out-of 
us ; if for out-of us they-were, they-would-have-remained 
(αν) with us : but that they-might-be-made-manifest that 
not are-they all out-of us. 

20. And you anointing have from the Holy-One, you- 
know (you) all. 

21 . Not I-wrote to-you because not you-know the truth, 



124 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

but because you-know it, and because every lie out-of the 
truth not is. 

22. Who is the Har, if not the-one denying that Jesus 
not is the Christ? This-one is the antichrist, the-one 
denying the Father and the Son. 

23. Every-one the denying the Son, not-even the Fathei 
has : the-one confessing the Son also the Father has. 

24. You that-which you-heard from beginning, in you 
let-it-abide. If in you abide that-which from beginning 
you-heard, also you in the Son and in the Father shall- 
abide. 

25. And this is the promise which he promised to-us, 
the life the eternal. 

26. These-things I-wrote to-you concerning the-ones 
deceiving you. 

27. And you the anointing which you-received from 
him abides in you, and not need have-you that any-one 
may-teach you ; but as the of-him anointing teaches you 
concerning all-thinJjF and true is, and not is false, and 
just-as it-taught you, abide-ye in him. 

28. And now, little-children, abide in him ; that if he- 
be-manifested, we-may-have boldness, and not may-we-be- 
ashamed from him in the presence of-him. 

29. If you-know that righteous he-is, you-know that 
every-one tlie doing the righteousness, out-of him has- 
been-begotten. 

TRANSLATION (Revised Version). 

CHAPTER 3. 

I. Behold what manner of love the Father hath be- 
stowed upon us, that we should be called children of God : 
and (such) we are. For this cause the world knoweth 
us not, because it knew him not. 



TRANSLATION (REVISED VERSION). ' 1 25 

2. Beloved, now are we children of God, and it is not 
yet made manifest what we shall be. We know that, if he 
shall be manifested, we shall be like him ; for we shall see 
him even as he is. 

3. And every one that hath this hope (set) on him 
purifieth himself, even as he is pure. 

4. Every one that doeth sin doeth also lawlessness : 
and sin is lawlessness. 

5. And ye know that he was manifested to take away 
sins ; and in him is no sin. 

6. Whosoever abideth in him sinneth not : whosoever 
sinneth hath not seen him, neither knoweth him. 

7. (My) little children, let no man lead you astray: 
he that doeth righteousness is righteous, even as he is 
righteous : 

8. He that doeth sin is of the devil ; for the devil 
sinneth from the beginning. To this end was the Son 
of God manifested, that he might destroy the works of 
the devil. 

g. Whosoever is begotten of God doeth no sin, be- 
cause his seed abideth in him : and he cannot sin, because 
he is begotten of God. 

10. In this the children of God are manifest, and the 
children of the devil : whosoever doeth not righteousness 
is not of God, neither he that loveth not his brother. 

11. For this is the message which ye heard from the 
beginning, that we should love one another : 

12. Not as Cain was of the evil one, and slew his 
brother. And wherefore slew he him? Because his 
works were evil, and his brother's righteous. 

13. Marvel not, brethren, if the world hateth you. 

14. We know that we have passed out of death into 
life, because we love the brethren. He that loveth not 
abideth in death. 



126 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

15. Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer: and 
ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him. 

16. Hereby know we love, because he laid down his 
life for us : and we ought to lay down our lives for the 
brethren. 

17. But whoso hath the world's goods, and beholdeth 
his brother in need, and shuttetli up his compassion from 
him, how doth the love of God abide in him? 

18. (My) little children, let us not love in word, neither 
with the tongue ; but in deed and truth. 

19. Hereby shall we know that we are of the truth, and 
shall assure our heart before him, whereinsoever our heart 
condemn us ; 

20. Because God is greater than our heart, and know- 
eth all things. 

21. Beloved, if our heart condemn us not, we have 
boldness toward God ; 

22. And whatsoever we ask, we deceive of him, because 
we keep his commandments, and do the things that are 
pleasing in his sight. 

23. And this, is his commandment, that we should 
believe in the name of his Son Jesus Christ, and love 
one another, even as he gave us commandment. 

24. And he that keepeth his commandments abideth 
in him, and he in him. And hereby we know that he 
abideth in us, by the Spirit which he gave us. 



VOCABULARY OF THE SELECTIONS FOR 
TRANSLATION INTO ENGLISH. 



άγαλλιάομαι, be glad. 
άγαττάω, to love. 
άγάιτη, η, ΙοΊΐβ. 
άγαττητόβ, beloved. 
άγγίλία, η, i/iessage. 
άγγ6λο5, ο, niessenger^ an- 
gel. 
αγιάζω, to hallow. 
ayios. Jioly. 
άγνίζω, pin- if y. 
αγνό?, pure. 
άγρόξ, c>, field. 
άδίλφό?, ο, brother. 
αδικία, η, nnrighteoiisness. 
αίμα, τό, blood. 
αίνιγμα, τό, α dark saying, 

ENIGMA. 

αϊρω, to take away. 
αίσχύνομαι, to be ashamed. 
αίτί'ω, to ask for. 
αϊτημα, τό, request. 
αΙών, d, age, EON. 
αΙώνιθ5, eternal. 



ακούω, to hear. 

άλαζονία, η, vainglory. 

αλαλάζω, to clang. 

άλήθ€ΐ,α, η, truth. 

αληθή?, trne. 

αληθινό?, true, real. 

άληθώ?, adv., truly. 

αλλά, conj., but. 

αλλήλων, 07ie another. 

άμαρτάνω, to sin. 

άμαρτωλόξ, ό, sinner. 

αμαρτία, ή, sin. 

αν, added to temporal and 
relative conj., not trans- 
latable ; see Greek index. 

άναγγίλλω, to declare. 

άναζάω, live again] revive. 

άνήρ, d, man. 

άνθρωπο?, ο', man. 

άνθρωττοκτόνο?, ό, murderer. 

άνίσ-τημι, to raise up. 

ανομία, η, lawlessness. 

άντΟχριστο?, ό, ANTICHRIST 



127 



Ι2δ 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



όίξιος. ivorthy. 
ά•ΐΓαγγ€'λλω, to announce. 
άΐΓί'χω, to be away. 
άττό, prep. w. g&u.,from. 
ά•τΓο5ημ€ω, to go abroad. 
άττοκρίνομαι, to answer. 
άίΓολαμβάνω, to take back. 
άττόλλυμι, to loose, destroy. 
ά-ίΓοσ-τί'λλω, to send away. 
άπτομαι, to touch. 
ατΓτω, to light. 
άρίσ -TOs, pleasing. 
άρν€ομαι, to deny. 
άρτι, adv., now. 
apTos, o, bread. 
αρχή, η, beginning. 
άρχομαι, to begin. 
άσ•χημον€ύω, to act unseemly. 
άσ-ώτω?, adv., dissolutely. 
αΰτόδ, αύτη, αυτό, he, she, it. 
αΰτον, of himself . 
άψίημι, to forgive. 
βάλλω, to cast. 
Papvs, -€ΐα, -ύ, heavy. 
βασ-ιλίία, η, kingdom. 
βίοβ, ο', life, sustenance. 
βλέίΓο), to see. 
βόσ-κω, to feed. 
γάρ, conj., for. 
γ€ίτων, ο', neighbor. 
γ€ννάω. to beget. 
γίνομαι, to be, become. 
γινώσκω, to k)i07U. 
γλώσσα, ή, tongue. 



γνώσι?, η, knowledge. 
γραμματίύβ, ο', clerk. 
γράψω, to write. 
δακτύλιον, τό, fingering. 
δαπανάω, to expend. 
δ€, conj., and, but. 
δ€ΐ, impers., it is fiecessary. 
διά, prep. w. gen., through; 

ace, on account of. 
διαιρέω, to divide. 
διάβολος, 6, devil. 
διαγογγύζω, to murmur. 
διάνοια, η, inind. 
διασκορπίζω, to scatter. 
διδάσκω, to teach. 
δίδωμι, to give, 
δίκαιος, just. 
δικαιοσύνη, η, justice. 
διψάω, to thirst. 
διώκω, to persecute, follow. 
δοκιμάζω, to prove. 
δουλ€ύω, to be a servant. 
δονλος, ό, serva7it. 
δύναμαι, to be able. 
δύο, two. 
ίάν, conj., if. 
€αυτοΰ, of himself . 
«γγίζω, to come near. 
€γώ, /. 
ΐΐ, conj., if. 
«ΐδωλον, TO, IDOL. 
εΙμί, am. 

€ΐπον, 2 aor., I said. 
ΐίρηνοποιός, peacemaker. 



VOCABULARY OF THE SELECTIONS. 



129 



cls, prep. w. ace, into, in. 

els, μία, «ν, one. 

ίΐσ-ί'ρχομαι, to enter. 

€ΐσφ6ρω, to bring in. 

€Ϊτ£, wJiether. 

€K, prep. w. gen., out of. 

ί'κατόν, \nA&(\.,one hundred. 

ίκ€ΐ, adv., there. 

Ικ6ΐνος, that one. 

£κψέρω, to carry ont. 

€λ€έω, to show fnercy. 

£λ€ήμων, merciful. 

iXirCs, η, hope. 

Ιμό?, my. 

ίμπροσθίν, adv., before. 

€v, prep. w. dat., in. 

4νδύω, to put on, ENDUE. 

i'veK€v, prep. w. gen., on ac- 
count of. 

ίν€νή κοντά, ninety. 

€vv€a, ni>te. 

«ντολή, η, comniandmeftt. 

ίνώτΓίον, adv., before, in 
face of. 

ίξ, cf. «K. 

ίξ^ρχομαι, to go out. 

ίΐταγγίλία, η, promise. 

ίτταγγίλλομαι, to promise. 

Iiri, prep. w. gen., lipon ; w. 
dat., 0/! ; w. ace, to, on. 

επιβάλλω, falling to, com- 
ing to. 

ίΐΓΐγινώ<Γκω, to know well. 

ΙτΓίθυμίω, to desire. 



ίΐΓίθυμία, ή, desire. 

ίΐΓΐιτίΐΓτω, to fall dcnini. 

ίτΓίτίθημι, to place upon. 

«ργον, TO, wor/c. 

«ρημοξ, ή, desert. 

€ριφο8, ή, kid. 

«ρχομαι, to come, go. 

«ρώ, shall say. 

«ρωτάω, to ask. 

«σ-θίω, to eat. 

ί'σ-οίΓτρον. TO, tnirror. 

£σ•χατο8, last. 

iTos, TO, year. 

ενρί(Γκω, to find. 

έ'φη, he said. 

ευφραίνω, to gladden, rejoice. 

«χω, to have. 

ί'ωξ, conj., 7intil. 

ζάω, to live. 

ζηλόω, to envy. 

Ιητεω, to seek. 

ζωή, η, life. 

ή, conj., or. 

ήδη, adv., now. 

ήκω, am coine. 

ήμερα, ή, day. 

ήμε'τερο5, OUT. 

ήχε'ω, to soimd. 

θάνατοβ. ο, death. 

θαυμάζω, to marvel. 

θεάομαι, to behold. 

θε'λημα, τό, will. 

θε'λω, to will. 

Θε05, ο, God. 



130 



ESSENTIALS OP NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



θ£ωρ€ω, to observe. 

θύω, to sacrifice. 

Ίησον8, ό, JesiiS. 

Ιλασ-μός, ο, propitiation. 

ϊνα, conj., /';/ order that. 

Ισ-χυρ05, strong. 

καθαρίζω, to purify. 

καθαρό?, pure. 

καθώ?, conj., even as. 

καί, conj., and, also. 

Καίν, ό, Cain. 

καινός, new. 

κακός, ei'il., bad. 

καλΐ'ω, to call. 

καρδία, η, heart. 

κατά, prep. \v. gen., against ; 
w. ace, tJiroiigh. 

καταγινώοΓκω, to condemn. 

καταλίίιτω, to leave behind. 

καταργί'ω, to bring to nought. 

καταφιλί'ω,,/ίΡ kiss. 

κατίσ-θίω, to devoiir, squan- 
der. 

καυχάομαι. to boast. 

Κ6ίμαι, to lie, recline. 

κ€ράτιον, TO, the fruit of the 
Carob tree, used for the 
swine, also by poor peo- 
ple. Lit., a little horn. 

κλ£ίω, to shut. 

κληρονομίω, to inherit. 

κοινωνία, r\, felhnvsJiip. 

κόλασ-ις, η, pjinishnient. 

κόσ-μος, ό, world, COSMOS. 



κρίσ-ις, Ύ\, judgment. 
κΰμβαλον, τό, CYMBAL, 
λαλΐ'ω, to Speak. 
λαμβάνω, to take. 
\(^ω, to say. 
λιμός, ό, hunger. 
λογίζομαι, ίο judge, think. 
λόγος, 6, word. 
λύχνος, ο, lamp. 
λύω, /(; loose, destroy. 
μακάριος, blessed, happy. 
μακροθυμέω, to suffer long. 
μακρός, long, far. 
μαρτυρέω, to bear witness. 
μαρτυρία, η, witness. 
μίθισ-τάνω, to remove. 
μ€ίζων, greater. 
μί'νω, to remain. 
μέρος, TO, part. 
μ€τά, prep. w. gen., with\ 

w. ace, after. 
μετανοέω, to repent. 
μ€τάνοια, η, repentance. 
μβταβαίνω, to cross over. 
μή, Jiot. 

μηδί, neither, nor. 
μηδίίς, no one. 
μισ-€'ω, to hate. 
μίσθιος, hireling. 
μισ-θός. d, hire. pay. 
μονογ£νής, o)dy begotten. 
μόνος, alone, only. 
μόσχος, d, calf. 
μυστήριον, τό, MYSTERY. 



VOCABULARY OF THE SELECTIONS. 



Ι3Ϊ 



veavicTKos, o, youiig riian. 
v€Kpos, dead. 
v€os, young. 
νήτΓίοϊ, young child. 
νικάω, to conquer. 
νίκη, η, victory. 
νΰν, adv., now. 
o0€v, adv., whence. 
οΐ8α, / know. 
οικία, η, Iiottsei 
oIkos, d, lionse. 
oXos, whole. 
όμοιος, like. 
(>μολοΎ€(ι>, to confess. 
όνβιδίζω, to revile. 
όνομα, TO, name. 
όράω, to see. 

οργίζω, to anger., arouse. 
opos, TO, mountain. 
OS. η, ο, who. 
οσ -Tis, ητΐ8, ό',τι, whoever. 
οτ£, conj., when. 
ΟΤΙ, conj., because, that. 
ov, not. 

οΰδί, neither, nor. 
ou8eis, no one. 
οΰδί'-ίΓοτί, adv., never. 
ούκ€'τι. adv., no longer. 
οΰΊτω, adv., not yet. 
ουρανός, ο', heaven. 
ουράνιος, heavenly. 
ουσία, η, substance, prop- 
erty. 
ούτος, this one. 



οΰ'τω, adv., thus. 

όφ6ΐλ£της, ό, debtor. 

όψείλημα, τό, debt. 

όφ€ίλω, to 07ve, be indebted. 

οφθαλμός, ο, eye. 

οψομαι, shall see. 

τταιδίον, TO, child. 

τταΐς, ο, η, child. 

τΓίΐνάω, to hiniger. 

τταλαιός, old. 

ττάλιν, adv., again. 

ιταραβολή, η, PARABLE. 

ιταράγομαι, to pass away. 

τταραδίδωμι, to deliver, give 
up. 

Ίταρακαλίω, to summon, com- 
fort. 

τταράκλητος, d, advocate. 

ιταράΐΓτωμα, τό, trespass. 

τΓαρ£ρχομαι, to pass by, 
omit. 

ιταροξύνομαι, to be provoked. 

irapovcria, ή, presence. 

Ίταρρησ-ία, η, boldness. 

ιτάς. all. 

ιτατήρ, d, father. 

ΐΓ6ίθω. to persuade. 

'ΤΓ€μ'π•ω, to send. 

Ίτ^νϋίω, grieve, mourn. 

πειρασ-μός, d, temptation. 

τΓ6ρί, prep. w. gen., concern- 
ing; w. ace, around. 

τΓίριιτατίω, to walk. 

'π•£ρισ-σ-€ύομαι, to abound. 



132 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



'π-£ρ'π•€ρ€ύομαι, to vaiint, 
boast. 

ΊΓίτΓτω, to fall. 

ΐΓΚΓΤίύω, to believe. 

ttCo-tis, η, faith. 

irio-Tos, faithful. 

Ίτλανάω, caicse to wander, 

Ίτλάνη, η, wandering. 

ιτληρόω, to β II. 

•7Γν€ϋμα, τό, spirit. 

ΐΓ0ΐ€ω, to do, make. 

ΊΓολίτηξ, 6, citizen. 

iroXvs, nuich, many. 

•ΐΓονηρ08. wicked. 

•ΐΓορενομαι, go, Come. 

iropvos, o, fornicator. 

iroo-os, how great. 

iroTairos, what sort of. 

ΐΓοΰ, adv., where. 

irovis, o, foot. 

■irpaijs, gentle. 

ιτ•ρ€σ-βύτίρο5, elder. 

•π-ρό, prep. w. gen., before. 

Ίτρόβατον, TO, sheep. 

irpos, prep. w. ace, to, 
towards. 

•τΓροσ•δ€'χομαι., to receive. 

'π•ροσ£ύχομαι, to offer pray- 
ers to. 

ιτροσ-καλίω, to summon. 

ιτρόσωίΓον, τό, face. 

ιτροφητβία, η, prophecy. 

•π-ροφήτη?, d, PROPHET. 

■irpwTos, first. 



ττυνθάνομαι, to learn, en- 
quire. 

ΊΓτωχό?, ό, beggar. 

•ΐΓώ•τΓοτ€, adv., ever. 

irws, adv., how. 

ρνίομαι., to deliver. 

<Γαρόω, to sweep. 

(τάρξ, ή, flesh . 

σήμίρον, adv., to-day. 

(TiTivTOs, fatted. 

(Γκάνδαλον, τό, cause for 
stumbling. 

σκοτ(α, η, darkness. 

cTKOTos, TO, darkness. 

<rds, ////. 

σιτλαγχνίζω, to have com- 
passion. 

σ-Ίτλάγχνα, τά, compassion, 
bowels. 

σπέρμα, το, seed. 

σ-τολή, η, robe, gar^nent, 

σν, thou. 

σ-υμφωνία, η, miisic. 

σ-ννάγω, to collect. 

συνίο-θίω, to eat with. 

σ•υνκαλ€ω, to call together. 

σ-υνχαίρω, to rejoice with. 

σ-φάζω, to slay. 

σ-ώμα, το', body. 

σ-ωτήρ, ο', saviour. 

ταχύ, adv., quickly. 

τίκνίον, to', little child. 

τί'κνον, to', child. 

Tf'\£ios, perfect, mature. 



VOCABULARY OF THE SELECTIONS.- 



133 



Τ€λ£ΐοω, to p 67- feet. 
τίλώνηδ, d, collector of taxes., 

publican. 
τηρ€ω, to keep. 
τίθημι, to p2ct, place. 
tCs, t£, who ? what ? 
Tis, Ti, sotne otie, certain 

one. 
Too-oiJTos, so much. 
τράχηλο?, ό, neck. 
Tpiis, τρία, three. 
τρί'χω, to run. 
τυφλο'ω, to tnake blind. 
υγιαίνω, to be well, strong. 
ϋδωρ, TO, water. 
υΐο'δ, d, son. 
■υιτόγω, to go. 
νπάρχω, to be. 
viTi'p, prep. w. gen., for. 
νίΓο'δημα, το', sandal. 
νίΓομί'νω, to endure. 
ΰσ-τίρίω, to lack, want. 
φαίνω, to shcnu, appear. 
ψαν€ρο'$, plain, tnanifest. 
ψαν6ροω, fnake manifest. 
φί'ρω, bring, bear. 
φίλο8, 6, friend. 
φοβέομαι, to fear. 
φο'βοδ. ο', fear. 
φρονί'ω, to think. 
φυλάσ-σω, to guard. 



ψνσ-ίομαι, to be puffed up, 

inflated. 
φώ?, to', light. 
χάλκο?, ό, brass, bronze. 
Χ»ρά, ή, joy. 
χαίρω, to rejoice. 
χάριν, used as prep. w. gen., 

for the sake of. 
χ€ίρ, η, hand. 
χοίρο?, ο, swine. 
Xopo's, ό, dancing. 
χορτάζω, to be filled. 
Xpcia, η, need. 
χρησ•τ€ύομαι, to be kind. 
χρίσ-μα, το', anointing. 
Χρίστο'?, ό, Christ. 
χώρα, η, country. 
ψίύδομαι, lie, to speak falsely. 
ψ€υδο•7Γροφήτη5, ό, false 

prophet. 
ψενδος, TO, lie. 
ψίύσ-τη?. ό, liar. 
ψηλαφάω, to touch, handle. 
ψυχή, ή, soiil. 

ψωμίζω, give in small parts. 
ώδί, as follows, thus. 
ώμος, ό, shoulders. 
ώρα, η, hour. 
tis, as. 
ώφίλίω, to owe, be in- 

debtea to. 



PART II. — GRAMMAR. 



1. WRITING AND SOUND. 



1. 


Greek is 


written with twenty-four letters. 


Form. 


Nam 


Ε. 


Latin. 




A 


α 


άλφα 


alpha 


a as 


in father 


Β 


β 


βήτα 


beta 


bi 




Γ 


7 


"Ϋαμμα 


gaiiuna 


g as 


in get 


Δ 


δ 


δέλτα 


delta 


d 




Ε 


€ (short) 


€ ι/Ίλον 


epsilon 


e as 


in Viet 


Ζ 


ζ 


ζήτα 


seta 


ζ 




Η 


η (long) 


η τα 


eta 


e as 


in they 


Θ 


θ,•} 


^^τα 


theta 


th as 


in thiiig 


Ι 


ι 


ιώτα 


iota 


i as 


in machine 


Κ 


κ 


κάπττα 


kappa 


c or k 




Λ 


λ 


λάμβ8α 


lambda 


1 




Μ 


t^ 


μυ 


in Η 


m • 




Ν 


ν 


νν 


nil 


η 




Η 


ξ 


Ρ- 


xi 


X as 


in exainple 


Ο 


(short) 


δ μΙκρον 


oniicron 


ό as 


in obey 


Π 


7Γ 


τη 


pi 


Ρ 




Ρ 


Ρ 


ρω 


rho 


r 




2 


σ 5 


σίγμα 


sigma 


s 




Τ 


τ 


ταΐι 


tail 


t 












Γ French Ji or 


γ 


υ3 


ν φΐλόν 


upsilon 


^ [^ German ii 


φ 


Φ 


φι 


phi 


ph as 


in phase 


χ 


Χ 


Χ^ 


chi 


ch as 


in chasm 


φ 


Ψ 


f , 


psi 


ps as 


in lips 


Ω 


ω (long) 


ώ μίγα 


ouiega 


δ as 


in tone 



1 Letters without equivalents are pronounced as in English. 

2 (Γ in the middle of a word; s at the close, ^ See 11, d. 



138 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 









ο^ 


ο 






Ο 




ρ 






■'-S 

Ό 










60 




"nJ 




(Λ 










(U 










00. ο 


(Λ 


5» 
















'α 








Ν b 


^ 


/^■\ 




^ 










■ι-> 


)-< 








S 
ο -^ 




rfl 
)0 




Ιϋ 


Ο 


§ 






'% 










<i3 " 


"* 


>a3 




α 


Λ 


Si 






0) 


„i-^ 




S 


Η 






Μ 




03 


ΙΛ 


γ5 






C 


«i, 




ο ζ:ζ 






iuO 






ΙΛ 


^ 








.4_» 




Q S 


— ^^j. 


JJji 


•.nj 




Ο 


























Uj 










ο ΕΛ 


ζί 












(/I 

Ο 




OJ 


4-> 

OJ 


ο 3 






υ ^ 


Λ 
















(Λ 










ί>^ ο 


<L> 












'w 




OJ 


c 


ω ρ. 






e are open; the; 
ipJitJiongs as foil 




ο 

Ζ 

ο 

υ 

Ο 


Η 

2 


J3 

-g - 


— Θ-Φ 
— Q3.CO 


X 




;5 

ο 
> 

fa 
ο 

ω 


4-) 
M-l 

Ο 

3^ 


ο 

(Λ 

(υ 
Β 




CO 

W 
Ο 

> 

fa 
ο 

Si 

ο 

Η 


ρ 

3 
ο 


•"■ -Si 

"μ 

c 
W 

Ό 

8 

c 


Μ 




2" 


— t= t- 


^ 


Ό 


yA 


„ 


£ 


5 55 


Ο 

s 

ο 
υ 


U 


C >3 


3 
Ο 








Is. 

Labials 

Linguals 

Palatals 


3 
ο 
c 
ο 

CU 


pa 

f2 




ο 

π! 


>Ρ "Ρ 

ο 3 


a 


M-l TO 


c 
ο 

α. 

S) 

c 
ο 

g. 
















^ 










(U 


■-3 




3 
Ι- 


■α 
Ξ . 

3 




?^ 


ο 




ο 


«Γ 

ο 


)-ύ ΙΟ 






9 'S 


V 




i 












> 




^ '^ 






> 






Id 


C 
.(Λ 


b 




Si 
















Ρ 




ci 








>- 




CO 


13 










^ Ο 




eor 


> 






^ 




«ys 


3 








Ο 
> 


•Ο 



■— -c .i: 



CONTRACTION. 1 39 

<u Ti '±i TS 

:; -ΰ «J "^ c 



ο 



ο 



ι 1 i 2 ρ 

-Β ^. '^ ο > ^ 



α, 



υ -ΰ -5 






C ο 



<υ 



ο 






> 'OJ en 



5> iz) 



ο -^^-^^ ot^ ϊί•£οω-ΙΙ 

υ 3 3 «ί-ΰ-^ΙΙ >>2 t^-2c ρ 

ω -li α-ΙΙ C w, cc ^ Ο 'rt § 

'^ U ^ ^ ° S ^ Ν II 

^ aJc^ll 0-o"ll''^Oc«"iL. 

ίί Ml 00 II I ^ ^ ^ « :: ^ - , 

-233 g gl3 ^^^n" 

^ ^"11 So S^-^S 

>3o '';^"li CO C.cCi- 

iS § . Η s: « ^ £«£ ^ 

. ■ — ■ ^ -^ ^ 



Ο Ο J-: Ο 



^ WW — Μ./ 

^ Ο ί^ 

-ϊ ι•>-Λ (J (D :ΐ 

ο J-: ο 



140 essentials of new testament greek. 

Accent. 
§ 9. There are three kinds of accent in Greek . 

The acute ; as in τ/ς, tvho ? 
■ The grave ; " ri?, some one. 

The circumflex ; " αύτω, to hint. 

There are two fundamental laws of accent : 
VERBAL, explained in 3, <?> ; and nominal (includ- 
ing nouns, adjectives, and participles), given in 
57. 

Breathings. 

§ 10. Every initial vowel or diphthong has a 
breathing mark over it : 

(') is called the smooth breathing, and is not 

pronounced. fSio?, αυτός. 
(') is called the rongJi breathing, and gives the 

sound of //. ωρα, Jidra ; αύτοΰ, hantou. 

Note that the breathing is placed over the 
second vowel of the diphthong. 

Initial ρ always has the rough breathing, ρήμα. 

Movable v. 

§ 11. Movable ν may occur at the end of the 
following : 

I. All dative plurals in -σι{ν). 7rdac(v), άκού- 
σασι{ν). 



apostrophe; crasis. • ' 141 

• 2. All verbs with the ending -σι. ΐστησι{ν), 
\ύουσί{ν). 

3. After -e of the third person singular of 
verbs. 'έ\αβ£{ν), ηκουσβ{ν). 

4. After kari ; as Ιστί{ν). 

So also σ is movable in οΰτω'^, thus. Before a 
vowel, as ούτω<ί ην; but before a consonant, 
ούτω και?- 

Apostrophe. 

§ 12. In the prepositions a short final vowel 
may be dropped before a word beginning with 
a vowel. E.g. air αύτον, from him ; βφ" ω, at 
zuJiicJi ; μβθ^ ημών, zvith us. 

Note that the elision is marked by an apos- 
trophe, and that a smooth mute, as vr, τ, changes 
to the corresponding rough mute, φ, θ, before a 
i'ougJi breathing. 

άλλα, but, also suffers elision ; as αλλ' e/xot. 

Crasis. 

§ 13. When two vowels, or a vowel and a diph- 
thong, come together in two words, as /cat εγώ 
or TO evavTiov, they are usually joined together; 
as Kayco or τουναντίον. This is called crasis 
(mixture), and is indicated by the coro)iis over 
the contracted form. 

^ But in the New Testament often s before a consonant. 



142 essentials of new testament greek. 

Punctuation. 

§ 14. The Greek has four punctuation marks : 
the comma and the period, as in English ; the 
interrogation mark { ; ), as the English semi- 
colon ; and the point (•) above the line, which 
equals English colon or semicolon. 



2. ACCIDENCE. 

§ 15. Accidence treats of nominal hiflexion, 
the declension of nouns, adjectives, and partici- 
ples, and of the cotijiigation of verbs. 

Inflexion. 

§ 16. In Greek all nouns, adjectives, and par- 
ticiples have inflexion; i.e. an ending or suffix 
which is added to the stem or substantial part 
of the word. There are three sets of endings or 
suffixes, and according as a noun takes one set 
or the other it is said to belong to the nrst, 
second, or tJiird declension. 

§ 17. Nouns of the first declension have the 
stem ending in -ά. This is therefore called the 
A-declension. 

Nouns of the second declension have the stem 
in -0. O-declension. 



GENDER AND NUMBER. " 1 43 

Most nouns of the third declension have 
stems ending in a consonant, hence the term 
Consonant Declension is used. 

Gender. 

§ 18. All nouns in Greek are either mascu- 
line, feminine, or neuter gender. 

Nouns denoting male persons are masculine. 
Nouns denoting /i7«rt/fc' persons are feminine. 

§ 19. Outside of these sex rules the gender 
may be determined very largely by the declen- 
sion to which the noun belongs : 

1. Nouns of the A-declension ending in a, r\, 
α are feminine. Those ending in -? are mas- 
culine. 

2. Nouns of the 0-declension in -09 are mostly 
masculine ; those in -ov are nenter. 

3. In the third declension the gender varies 
according to the ending of the stem. See 
Lessons XV., XVI., XVIII., and XIX. for the 
discussion of these forms. 

Number. 

§ 20. In the Greek of the New Testament 
there are two numbers, singular and plural, as 
in English. 



144 essentials of new testament greek. 

Case. 

§ 21. There are five cases in Greek : 

1. Nominative, as in English. 

2. Genitive, source or whence-case. Eng- 
lish possessive or objective with of. 

3. Dative, \vhere-case, to or for which any- 
thing IS or IS done. English remote or indirect 
object. 

4. Accusative, whither-case. English direct 
object. 

5. Vocative, case of address. 

§ 22. First or A-Declension.^ 



αρχή 


, η, begitining. 


σοφία, ή, wisdom. ώρα, η, hour. 


Stem αρχα- 


Stem σοφιά- 




Stem ώρά- 


S.N.V. 


άρχή 


σοψία 




ώρα 


G. 


άρχή9 


(Γθψία$ 




upas 


D. 


αρχή 


ο-οψία 




•Sp» 


A. 


αρχήν 


σοψίαν 




ωραν 


P.N.V. 


όρχαί 


<Γθψίαι 




ώραι 


G. 


άρχων 


(Γοφιών 




copwv 


D. 


άρχαΐ$ 


(Γθψίαι,$ 




«pais 


A. 


όρχάδ 


σοψία$ 
δόξα, η, glory. 




ωρϋς 


S.N.V. 


δόξα 


Stem 5o|i- 


P.N.V. 


δόξαι 


G. 


8όξη8 




G. 


δοξών 


D. 


δόξτ, 




D. 


δόξαι$ 


A. 


δόξαν 




A. 


δόξά$ 



^ Cf. 55 for table of endings in the A-declension. 



SECOND OR 0-DECLENSION. 



145 



S.N. 


ιτροφήτη? ^ 


G. 


Ίτροφήτου 


D. 


ιτροφήτη 


A. 


Ίτροφήτην 


V. 


Ίτροφήτα 



•π-ροφήτη?, ο, PROPHET 
Stem ττροφητα- 



Ρ.Ν.ν. 
G. 
D. 
Α. 



ιτροφήται 
Ίτροφητών 
ιτροφήται? 
ΐΓροφήτα? 



α. Most nouns of this declension have the nom. in a, η, 
o'' a, and are feminine. 

ύ. Some end in -s, and are masc. E.g. μαθητής, disci- 
ple ; veavias, young man ; κριτής, judge. 

c. yrj, η, earth, contracted from yea, is declined through- 
out as o.pyr], but with the circumflex accent. 



§23. 



Second or 0-Declension. 



λόγο5, d, word. 


δοΰλο?, ο', servant. 


άνθρωίΓΟ?, ma7i. 


Stem \o-^o- 


Stem δουλο- 


Stem ανθρωπο- 


S.N. 


λόγοδ 


8οΰλθ8 


άνθρωίΓΟ? 


G. 


λόγου 


8ούλου 


άνθρωπου 


D. 


λόγω 


δουλω 


άνθρώιτω 


A. 


λόγον 


δοΰλον 


άνθρωτΓον 


V. 


λόγ€ 


δοΰλε 


άνθρωπ£ 


P.N.V. 


λόγοι 


δοΰλοι 


άνθρωττοι 


G. 


λόγων 


δούλων 


ανθρώπων 


D. 


λόγοι? 


δούλοι? 


άνθρωποι? 


A. 


λόγου? 


δούλου? 
υιό?, son. 


άνθρωπου? 


S.N. 


υιός 


Stem υΐο- 


Ρ.Ν.ν. υίο£ 


G. 


υΐοΰ 




G. υιών 


D. 


υΐω 




D. υιοί? 


A. 


υίόν 




Α. υιού? 


V. 


υιέ 


1 See 51 and 54. 





146 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

8ώρον, TO, gift. 
Stem δωρο- 
S.N.A.V. δώρον P.N.A.V. 8ώρα 

G. δώρου G. δώρων 

D. δώρω D. δώροις 

a. Ίησονζ, Jesus, is Ί>;σου in the gen., dat., and voc. 
§24. 



L 


The 


Definite Article. 






Masc. 


Fern. 


Neut. 


S.N. 


6 


η 


τό 


G. 


τοΰ 


τή8 


τον 


D. 


τω 


"^ 


τφ 


A. 


τόν 


τήν 


τό 


P.N. 


ol 


αΐ 


Td 


G. 


των 


των 


των 


D. 


Tois 


rats 


TOiS 


A. 


TOVS 


TOS 


τά 



25. Adjectives of the A- and 0-Declension. 







καλός, good. 




S.N. 


καλός 


καλή 


καλόν 


G. 


καλοΰ 


καλής 


καλόν 


D. 


καλώ 


καλή 


καλώ 


A. 


καλόν 


καλή ν 


καλόν 


V. 


καλ« 


καλή 


καλόν 


P.N. 


καλοί 


καλαί 


καλά 


G. 


καλών 


καλών 


καλών 


D. 


καλοϊς 


καλαΐς 


καλοΐς 


A. 


καλούς 


καλας 


καλά 







PRONOUNS 


IN -05. 




147 




ίδιος, 


one's own. 


μικρός, small. 


S.N. 


ϊ8ιο5 


Ιδία 


ϊδιον 


μικρός 


μικρά 


μικρόν 


G. 


tSLov 


Ιδία? 


ιδίου 


μικροϋ 


μικράς 


μικροΰ 


D. 


Ιδίω 


Ιδία 


ίδίο) 


μικρω 


μικρά 


μικρω 


A. 


ϊδιον 


Ιδίαν 


ϊδιον 


μικρόν 


μικράν 


μικρόν 


V. 


ϊδιε 


Ιδίά 


ϊδιον 


μικρ€ 


μικρά 


μικρόν 



Ρ.Ν.ν. ϊδιοι ϊδιαι ϊδια 

G. Ιδίων Ιδίων ιδίων 

D. Ιδίοις Ιδίαις ίδίοις 

Α. Ιδίους Ιδίας ϊδια 



μικροί μικραι μικρά 

μικρών μικρών μικρών 

μικροΐς μικραΐς μικροΐς 

μικρούς μικρας μικρά 



§ 26. Pronouns in -ος. Cf. 62-64. 
ούτος, ihis (one) ; ίκίίνος, i/tai (one) ; αυτός, /le, himself. 



S.N. 


ούτος 


αύτη 


τούτο 


G. 


τούτου 


ταύτης 


τούτου 


D. 


τούτω 


ταύτη 


τούτω 


A. 


τούτον 


ταύτην 


τούτο 


P.N. 


ούτοι 


αύται 


ταΰτα 


G. 


τούτων 


τούτων 


τούτων 


D. 


τούτοις 


ταύταις 


τούτοις 


A. 


τούτους 


ταύτας 


ταΰτα 



α. αυτός and εκείνο? are declined like κάλο'?, above, 
except the neut. sing, of each is αυτό and εκεΓί'ο in nom. 
and ace. 

ί>. αυτός is used as tlie pers. pron. of the 3 pers., /le, 
she, it ; but in the oblique cases only. When used with a 
noun in any case, it means himself., etc ; e.g. b άνηρ αυτός, 
the man himself. But when the art. precedes the pron., as 
αντος άνηρ, it means the same (man). Cf. 69-70. 



7. 




Relative 


Pronoun. 












OS, 


who. 








OS 
οΰ 


η 




ου 






οΐ 
ων 


αΐ 
ών 


α 
ών 


f 


η 


ω 






ols 


als 


οΐβ 


ov 


ην 


ο 






oil's 


as 


α 



\ 28. Consonant or Third Declension. Lingual 
Mute Stems. Cf. 127-132. 

xdpis, ή, grace. «XirCs, η, hope. 

Stem χαριτ- Stem ελττίδ- 

S.N. xapis iXiris 

G. χάριτθ5 «XiriSos 

D. χάριτι iXiriSi 

A. χάριν ίλιτίδα 

V. X^pis iXirC 

P.N.V. xapiT€s iXirCSes 

G. χαρίτων ίλιτίδων 

D. χάρκΓΐ ίλ•π•£θΓΐ 

Α. xapiras «XiriSas 

άρχων, 6, ruler ^ prince. 
Stem αρχοντ- 
όίρχων 
apxovTOS 
άρχοντι 
άρχοντα 

αρχοντ€β 
αρχόντων 
άρχουσ-ι 
apxovTas 



vvt, 


, ή, mghi. 


Stem νυκτ- 


S.N.V. 


νύξ 


G. 


VVKTOS 


D. 


νυκτί 


Α. 


νύκτα 


Ρ.Ν.ν. 


vvKTiS 


G. 


νυκτών 


D. 


νυξί 


Α. 


νύκταβ 



NOUNS OF THE THIRD DECLENSION. 149 

§ 29. Neuter Nouns of the Third Declension. 
Stems in -ar. Cf. 106. 

σ-ώμα, τό, body. 
Stem σωματ- 
S.N.A.V. σ-ώμα P.N.A.V. ο-ώματα 

G. σ-ώματο$ G 

D. (τώματι D 



(τωματων 
(τώμασ-ι 



όνομα, τό, ftame. 
Stem ονοματ- 
S.N.A.V. όνομα P.N.A.V. ονόματα 

G. όνόματο? G. ονομάτων 

D. ο'νόματι D. όνόμοσ-ί, 

§ 30. Neuter Nouns of the Third Declension. 
Stems in -ea. Cf. 135. 

γίνο8, τό, race. 
Stem yeve<T- 
S.N.A.V. 7€'vos ^ P.N.A.V. γί'νη (yeVea) 

G. γί'νονβ (yeVeos) G. γ€νών (yevewv) 

D. γίν€ΐ D. γί'ν€ο-ι 

§ 31. Stems in -t and -ev. Third Declension. 

TTOXis, η, ctVy. Cf. 112. 
Stem jroXi- 

S.N. ιτόλΐδ P.N.V. iroXeis 

G. ΐΓΟλ€ω5 • G. iroXewv 

D• ΐΓΟλ€ΐ D. ιτόλίσ-ι 

A• -π-όλιν A. πόλίΐβ 
V. ττόλι 



I50 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



Pao-iXcvs, 6, king. 
Stem βασιΧευ- 
S.N. pa<riXivs P.N.A.V. Pao-iXcis 

G. βα(Γΐ.λ«'ως G. βασιλέων 

D. βα(Γΐλ€ΐ D. βασ-ιλ€ΰ(Γΐ 

A. βασ-ιλέα 
V. βασι.λ€ϋ 



32. Liquid Stems of the Third Declension. 



αΙών, ό, age. 
Stem οιων- 
S.N.V. αΙών P. αΙώνες 
G. αΙωνος αΙώνων 

D. αΐώνι αΙωοΊ, 

Α. αΙώνα α1ώνα$ 



η'γ(μών, leader. 

Stem ήγε/χον- 

S.N.V. ηγίμών Ρ. ηγ€μόν€β 

G. ηγ€μόνθ8 ηγ€μόνων 

D. ηγ£μόνι ήγίμόοτι 

Α. ήγ€μόνα ήγ€μόνα$ 



33. 



Syncopated Stems in -ep-. 
ατήρ, ό, father. Cf. 113. 



ΙΓΟΤ 



Stem -πάτερ 

S.N. ττατήρ P.N.V. ττατίρί? 

G. irarpos (Trarepo?) G. ττα^ρων 

D. "Π-ατρί (πατερι) D. ιτατράσ-ι 

Α. ΐΓατ€ρα Α. ττατίρα? 

V. Ίτάτίρ 

άνήρ, ό, f/ian. Cf. 114. 

Stem ανΐρ- 



8. Ν. άνήρ 

G. dvSpos (avepos) 

D. dvSpi (ave'pt) 

A. άνδρα (άνερα) 

V. avep 



P.N.V. avSpcs (άν /pes) 

G. άν8ρών (άντρων) 

D. άν8ρά<Γΐ 

Α. avSpas (avepas) 



ADJECTIVES OF THE CONSONANT DECLENSION. 151 

a. μ-ητηρ, jiwtJier^ θυγάτηρ, daughter^ and -γαστηρ, belly^ 
are nouns declined the same as ττατήρ. 

§ 34. The following are nouns of the third 
declension that have irregularities of form or 
accent. Only forms of the New Testament are 
here given. 

γόνυ, TO, knee. Plur. γόνατα, γονάτων, γόνασ-ι. 

γυνή, η, tuoinan, γυναικό?, γυναικί, γυναίκα, γύναι. Plur. 

γυναΐκ€5, γυναικών, γυναιξί, γυναΐκαβ. 
θρ£ξ, η, hair, τρίχα. Plur. τρίχ65, τριχών, θριξί, τρίχαβ. 
κνων, dog. Plur. κύνίξ. κυσί, κΰνο8. 
οϋ?, τό, ear. Plur. ώτα, ώσ-ί. 
irois, ο, foot, iroSos, ττοδί, ττόΒα. Plur. iroSes, -ιτοδών, iroo-C, 

ιτόδο?• 
ύδωρ, τό, waier, ύδατο?, ΰδατι. Plur. ΰ'δοτα, υδάτων, ΰ'δασι. 
χ€ίρ, η, hand., X«ip<5s, X«i-pi, Χ^ΐρα- Plur. X€ip€s, χίψών, 

χίρσ-ί, xeipas. 

§ 35. Adjectr^es of the Consonant Declension. 





STEMS IN -εσ- 


STEMS IN -V- 




άληθήβ, true. 


αψρων, foolish. 




Stem αΚηθΐσ- 


Stem αφρον- 


S.N. 


άληθήδ άληθί'δ 


όίψρων όίψρον 


G. 


άληθοΰδ 


άφρονο? 


D. 


άληθ£ΐ 


άψρονι 


A. 


αληθή άληθί'β 


άφρονα άφρον 


V. 


άληθί'δ 


άφρον 


P.N.V. 


άληθ£Ϊ8 αληθή 


άφρον€$ άφρονα 


G. 


αληθών 


αφρόνων 


D. 


άληθίσ-ι 


άφροσ-ι 


A. 


άληθ€Ϊ$ αληθή 


άψρονα$ άφρονα 



152 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



§ 36. Irregular Adjectives of the Consonant 
Declension. Cf. 164-165. 





iras, all. 




μί'γαξ, great. 




Stem -παντ- 




Stems 쀕γα-, /χεγαλο- 


SN. 


iras ττάσ-α 


ττάν 


μ«-γας μ,ΐ-γάλη μίγα 


G. 


iravTOs ιτάση? 


τταντό? 


μ€γάλου μ€γάλη5 μίγάλου 


D. 


ιταντί ιτά(ΓΤ) 


ιταντί 


μίγάλω μίγάλη μ€γάλω 


A. 


ττάντα ιτάσ-αν 


ιτάν 


με-γαν μεγάλην μί'γα 


V. 


Ίτάν Ίτάσ-α 


Ίτάν 


μ€γα μίγάλη μ«γα 


.N.V. 


iravTes ττασ-αι 


ττάντα 


μεγάλοι μεγάλαι μεγάλα 


G. 


ττάντων ττασών 


ττάντων 


μεγάλων μεγάλων μεγάλων 


D. 


ττάσ-ι iraerais 


ττάσι 


μεγάλοι? μεγάλαι? μεγάλοι? 


A. 


iravTas ττάσ-αβ 


πάντα 


μεγάλου? μεγάλα? μεγάλα 



χολύ?, 7niich, tiiany. 
Stems τΓολυ-, ττοΚΚο- 
S.N. ΐΓολν? "ΐτολλή ΐΓολύ Ρ. ττολλοί -ιτολλαί ττολλά 

G. ΊΓολλοΰ "ΐτολλή? ττολλοΰ ιτολλών -ίτολλών ιτολλών 

D. ΊΓολλω ΊΓολλή τΓολλω ττολλοί? ττολλαΐ? ττολλοί? 

Α. ΤΓολύν ΤΓολλήν τΓολύ ττολλού? ττολλά? ττολλά 



§ 37. Comparison of Adjectives. 

1. Add -τ€ρος for the compar., and -raros for the superl. 

ίσ-χνρό?, Ισ•χΰρό-τερο?,ΐ (Ισ-χϋρό-τατο?), 

strong. strong-er. strong-est. 

2. Add -καν for the compar., and 'ΐστο<ί for the superl. 

τΓολύ?, ττλε-ίων, ιτλε-ΐσ•το?, 



much. 



most. 



^ When the penultimate vowel is short, as in σοφΙ)%, the ο 
is lengthened before -repoi and -raros; e.g. σοφ6$, σοφώτεροί 
(σοφώτατοί). Cf. 225. 



CARDINAL NUMERALS ; PROxNOUNS. 



153 



Irregular Comparison. 



§38. 

άγαθ05, good κρίίσσ-ων κράτκττοδ 

κακός, bad χ€ίρων 

καλ05, good καλλίων 

μέγας, great μ€ίζων μίγισ-τος ^ 

μικρός, small ίλάσ-σ-ιον «λάχιστος 

τΓολύς, miicJi ττλίίων τΓλίϊστος 

α. Comparatives in -ων are declined like άφρων, § 35. 



§39. 



Cardinal Numerals. 





ίΐς, 07ie. 




Ν. 


€Ϊς μία 


έ'ν 


G. 


€νός μιας 


ί'νός 


D. 


evi μια 


evi 


A. 


4'να μίαν 


έ'ν 



τ€σ-σ•αρ€ς, four. 
τί'σ•σ-αρ€ς τίσσαρα 

τίσ- (τάρων 

TeVtrapcri 
τ€<Γ<Γαρας τίίτσαρα 



τρ€ΐς, ihrec. 
τρ€ΐς τρία 

τριών 

τρισί 

τρίίς τρία 

α. The cardinal numerals from 4 to 100 are indeclinable. 

b. Ordinal numerals {ττρωτος, etc.) in -05 and -ol are 
declined like adjectives in -05. 

c. For the declension of oiSet's (ov8e, and not, + els, one), 
see 221. 

§ 40. Pronouns. Cf. 68 and 213. 

ίγώ, /. Personal. 

S.N. ίγώ 

G. «μοΰ, μου 

D. <μοί, μοι 

Α. «μί, μ€ 

Ρ. Ν. ημ«ϊ5, lue 

G. ημών 

D. ημΐν 

Α. ήμάβ 

1 Occurs but once, 





σν, you. 


S.N. 


σν 


G. 


«Γοΰ 


D. 


(Γοί 


A. 


CTi 


P.N. 


νμίΐς 


G. 


νμών 


D. 


νμίν 


A. 


νμά? 



154 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



S.G. 
D. 

A. 

P.G. 

D. 

A. 

S.G. 
D. 

A. 



ίμαυτον, myself. 
Ιμαυτοΰ, -ή$ 
Ιμαυτω, -fj 
ίμαυτόν, -ην 
ημών αυτών 
ημίν αύτοΐξ, 



Reflexive. 



<Γ€αυτοΰ, thyself. 
(Γίαυτον, -r\% 
σ-€αυτω, -ή 
σ•6αυτόν, -ήν 
νμών αυτών 

•ΰμίν αύτοΪ8 νμΐν αύταΐ? 

νμά$ ούτούδ ■ΰμά5 avTas 

£αυτον, /innself herself itself. 
€ αυτόν, -fjs P. ί αυτών 

€αυτω, -fj ίαυτοϊβ «αυταίβ εαυτοΪ8 

€ουτόν, -ήν, -ό €αυτοΰ$ «αυτά? έαυτά 



αυται$ 
ημα5 αύτούξ, αΰτάξ 



S 41. Interrogative. 
Tis, who. 
S.N. t£s τί P. Tives τίνα 
G. Tivos τίνων 

D. τίνι τίσι 

Α. τίνα τί Ttvas τίνα 



Indefinite. 
tIs, some otie. 
S.N. tIs tI p. Tiv€s τινά 
Tivos τινών 

Tivl Tio-l 

Tivtt tI Tivas τινά 



a. TIS, some one, is an enclitic. Cf. 196-198. 

§ 42. The indefinite relative 6στί<; (6ς, ivJio, 
and ΤΛ?), whoever, has the following forms : 

S.N. oo-Tis, ήτΐ5, ο,τι. P.N. oiVives, aiTivis, άτινα. 



43. 




Participles. 








λύω, loose. 








Present Active. 




S.N. 


λύων 


λύουσα 


λνον 


G. 


XvoVTOS 


λυούοτη? 


XvOVTOS 


D. 


λύοντι 


λυούσ-τ) 


λύοντι 


A. 


λΰοντα 


λύουσ-αν 


λΰον 



PARTICIPLES OF λνω. 



155 



P.N.V. 


λύθνΤ€5 


λύουσαι 


λνοντα 


G. 


λυόντων 


λυουσ-ών 


λυόντων 


D. 


λύουσ-ι 


λυούίταιβ 


λύουσι 


A. 


λύοντα5 


λυούσα? 


λύοντα 


a. For the pres. pai 


1. of εΙμί, αιιι^ see 


183 and 184. 






Aorist Active. 




S.N. 


Xvlo-as 


λύσασ-α 


λΰσ-αν 


G. 


λύσ -avTOS 


λυσάσηΒ 


λύσαντοδ 


D. 


λύσ-αντι 


λυσ-άστ) 


λύσ-αντι 


A. 


λύίταντα 


λύ(Γασ"αν 


λΰσαν 


P-N.V. 


λύ(Γαντ€5 


λύσ-ασαι 


λύσ-αντα 


G. 


λυσ-άντων 


λυσ-ασ-ών 


λυσάντων 


D. 


λύ(Γα<Γΐ 


λυσ-άσ•αΐ9 


λύσασι 


A. 


λύίτανταδ 


λυσ•ά(Γα5 

Perfect Active. 


λύσαντα 


S.N. 


λΐλυκώς 


λίλυκυΐα 


λίλυκό? 


G. 


λ£λυ KOTOS 


λίλυκυία? 


λίλυκότοβ 


D. 


λ£λυκότι 


λίλυκυία 


λίλυκότι 


A. 


λίλυκότα 


λίλυκυΐαν 


λίλυκό? 


P.N.V. 


λ€λυκότ£5 


λελυκυΐαι 


λίλυκότα 


G. 


λ€λυκότων 


λίλυκυιών 


λίλυκότων 


D. 


λίλυκόσι 


λ€λυκυίαι$ 


λίλυκόσι 


A. 


λίλυκότα? 


λ€λυκυία8 


λίλυκότα 


δ. So likewise the 2 perf. act. ; as Ιστώ?, βστυια, ίστός 


staiidi>ig, from ΐστημί, 


, /(? ;//ί7/ί•ί? stand. 








Aorist Passive. 




S.N. 


λυθίί? 


λυθ£ί<Γα 


λυθί'ν 


G. 


λυθ€ντο5 


λυθίίσ-η? 


λυθί'ντοδ 


D. 


λυθί'ντι 


λυθίίσ-τ) 


λυθί'ντι 


A. 


λυθί'ντα 


λυθίϊσαν 


λυθί'ν 



156 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



P.N.V. 


kvBtvTis 


λυθ£Ϊ(Γαι 


λυθί'ντα 


G. 


λνθέντων 


λυθίκτών 


λνθ€ντων 


D. 


λυθΐΐσ-ι 


XvGiicrais 


λυθ€Ϊσ"ΐ 


A. 


λυθί'ντα? 


λυθ€ίσα$ 


λυθ€ντα 



C. So likewise the 2 aor. pass. ; as σ-παρίίζ, σπαρεισα, 
στταρίν, from σπείρω, sow. 



§ 44. Participles 


in -€ων and 


-αων contract as 


follows : 






λαλΐ'ων ^ 


λαλΐονσα 


λαλέον, speaking' 


become λαλών 


λαλονσ-α 


λαλοΰν 


λαλοΟντοδ 


λαλούσ-ηδ 


λαλονντο9 


ξάων ^ 


ξάουσ-α 


ζάον, living 


become ζών 


ξώσ-α 


ζών 


ζώντ05 


ζώση5 


ζώντοδ 



§ 45. Second Aorist Participles of Irregular 
Verbs. 

δίδωμι. — Sovs, giving. βαΟνω. — βοβ, going. 

S.N. δούδ δοΰσ-α δόν S.N. βα,5 βάσ-α βάν 

G. δόντο5 δοΰ(Γη5 δόντθ8 G. βάντο? βάσ•η5 βάντθ5 

etc. etc. 

a. So the pres. part. διδον$. 

τίθημι. — Geis, placing. ττί-ιττω. — ιτίσ-ών, falling. 

S.N. θίί? θ€ί(Γα θί'ν S.N. ΐΓ€(Γών ιτίσ-οίίσ-α ire<rov 

G. θ€ντθ5 θ€ί<Γη8 GiVTOS G. ir€<rovTOS ΊΓίο-ούσ-η? iricrovTOS 

etc. etc. 

b. So the pres. part. tiOcCs. c. So all 2 aor. ptcs. in -ών. 

1 See §§5, 8; 8,4. 2 See §§ 5, 1,2; 8,3. 



THE VERB. 157 

ϊ<Γτημι. — στα?, standing. γινώσ-κω. — γνού?, knowing. 

S.N. (TTds <Γτάσ•α στάν S.N. γνο -us γνοΰσα (γνόν) 
G. crravTOs (Γτάσ-η? (ττάντοδ G. γνόντο8 γνούσ-ηβ γνόντθ8 

etc. etc. 

§ 46. All participles in -μβνος are declined 
like καλός, § 25. 

The Verb. 
Voice. 

§ 47. There are three voices in Greek : the 
active, middle, and passive. Of these the active 
and passive are the same as the active and 
passive in English. 

The middle voice represents the subject as 
acting upon itself or in some way that concerns 
itself. 

1. The Direct Middle where the subject acts 
directly upon itself; e.g: Χούω, I ivash ; λούομαι, 
I wash myself. 

2. The Indirect Middle where the subject is 
represented as acting in some way for itself ; 
e.g. αγοράζω, I buy, αγοράζομαι, I buy for my- 
self ; νίτττω, I zvash, νίτττομαι τας χεΐρα?, / wash 
my οτυη hands. 

§ 48. The uses of the middle voice are numer- 
ous, and are best learned from the lexicon. 



158 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

Often the sense of the verb changes in the 
middle ; e.g. ττβίθω, I persuade ; Ίτ^ίθομαι, I per- 
suade myself, I obey. 

Mood. 

§ 49. There are five moods in Greek : the In- 
dicative, Subjunctive, Optative, Imperative, and 
Infinitive. The Indicative, Imperative, and In- 
finitive correspond very closely to the same 
moods in English. The Subjunctive is most 
often translated by the English potential. The 
principal uses of the Subjunctive are explained 
in 87, 95-97, 158. See also under Syntax. 

The Optative mood is rare in the New Testa- 
ment, and hence is not given with the para- 
digms. For the forms that occur and the uses 
of the same, see § 70 and § 71. 

Tense. 

§ 50. The tenses of the Indicative mood are 
seven. The present and imperfect denote con- 
tinued or repeated action ; the aorist and future 
denote an indefinite action ; the perfeet, pluper- 
fect, Άηά future perfect aQX\ot& completed action. 

§ 51. The tenses of the subjunctive are the 
present, aorist, Άηά perfect ; the latter is very rare 
in the New Testament. 



THE VERB. 159 

§ 52. The tenses of the Indicative are distin- 
guished as primary and secondary. 

Primary : Present., fjcttcre, perfect, future perfect. 
Secondary : Imperfect., aorist, pluperfect. 

§ 53. The principal parts of a Greek verb are 
the first person singular of the present, fnture, 
(first or second) aorist, (first or second) perfect, 
indicative active ; the perfect middle, and the 
first or second aorist passive ; e.g. 

λνω, λύσ-ω, έ'λυσα, λί'λυκα, λ€'λυμαι,, ίλΐθην 
κρίνω, κρινώ, 4'κρι.να, κΐ'κρικα, κέκριμαι, ΐκρίθην 

§ 54. There is no difference in meaning nor 
in translation betv^een a first aorist and a second 
aorist, between a first perfect and a second 
perfect. 

§ 55. The tenses of the verb are divided into 
nine classes or tense systems, each having a 
distinct tense stem. 

\. Present incluaing present and in/perfcct. 

2. Future " future active and middle. 

3. First aorist " first aorist active and middle. 

4. Second aorist " second aorist active and middle. 

5. First perfect " first perfect and pluperfect active. 

6. Second perfect ^^ second perfect ζ,ηά pluperfect active. 

7. Perfect middle " perfect and pluperfect middle and 

passive and future perfect. 

8. First passive " first aorist and future passive. 

9. Seco7id passive " second aorist and future passive. 



ίδο 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



§56. 



Indicative. 



I. Active Voice of λί«. 



Present. 




Γ I. λϋομ€ν 
p. X 2. λυ€Τ€ 
[ 3- λΰσυσι 



Imperfect. 
ί'λυον 

4'λυ€ 
ϊλνομ€ν 

iXv£T£ 

«λυον 



Ftiture. 

λϋ(Γ» 

λν(Γ€15 

λνο-ίΐ 
λϋοΓομίν 

λϋ(Γ£Τ€ 

λυσουσι 



Subjunctive, ί ι. λυω 

• S. J 2. λνηβ 

ίΐ. λνωμ£ν 
2. λυητ£ 
3- λυωσι 



Imperative. 



Infinitive. 



S. 



2. λν£ 
[ 3• λνίτω 

Γ 2. λΰίΤ£ 

-^ 3• λνόντων or 

[ λυέταχταν 

λϋ£ΐν 



λντίΐν 



Participle. 



λνων, 
λϋου(Γα, 
λνον (§ 43) 



λν(Γων, 
λν<Γθυ(Γθ, 
λΰ<Γθν 



ACTIVE VOICE OF λΰω. i6i 

I Aorist. I Perfect. i Pluperf. 



Indicative. 




' I. 


έ'λϋσ-α 


λελυκα 


(£)λ€λνΚ€ΐν 




S. 


2. 


ίλυσ -as 


λ€λυκα5 


(Ι )λελύκ6ΐ5 






L3• 


€λϋ<Γ6 


λελυκ6 


(€)λελΰκ£ΐ 






I. 


€λϋ<Γαμ£ν 


λίλύκαμίν 


(€)λ€λύκ€1- 

μ€ν 




P. 


2. 


€λϋσ-ατ£ 


λελύκατβ 


(€)X£XVIKCI- 
Τ6 






3• 


έ'λνσ-αν 


λελύκασι 


(l)\eXvKci 






• 




or -καν 


σαν 


Subjunctive 




Γι. 


λϋ(Γω 


[λίλνκω 






s. 


2. 

.3• 


λυσ-τ)5 


λίλύκη? 








λϋσ-Τ) 


λελύκη 








I. 


λνσ-ωμίν 


λ€λύκωμ6ν 






p.. 


2. 


λϋσ•ητ6 


λίλύκητε 








3• 


λνίτωίΓΐ 


λίλύκωτι] 




Imperative. 


s.^ 


r 2. 

l3- 


λΰσον 


[λ€λυκ€ 






λϋσ-άτω 


λελυκέτω 








'2. 


λϋ(Γατ6 


λίλνκίτε 






p.- 


3• 


λυσάντων or 










- 


λυσ-άτωίταν 


λίλυκί'τωοΓον] 


Infinitive. 






λνσαι 


λίλυκί'ναι 




Participle. 






λϋσ-άδ, 
Xijcra<ra, 


λίλυκώ?, 
λίλυκυϊα, 





λνσον (§ 43) λίλυκ08 (§ 43) 



l62 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



2. Middle Voice of λίω. 



Present. 



Imperfect. Fiiture. 



Indicative. 




I. 


λύομαι 


Ιλνόμην 


λνσ-ομαι 




s. 


■ 2. 


λϋτ), Xvei 


ίλνου 


λνστ), λύσίΐ 






.3• 


Xierai 


ίλϋ£ΤΟ 


λϋίτεται 






I. 

- 2. 

. 3• 


λΰόμίθα 


έλυόμΕθα 


λϋσ-όμεθα 




P. 


\v€<r0€ 


€λϋ6σ-θ€ 


λϋ(Γ£σθ6 






λνονται 


έλύοντο 


λν<Γονται 


Subjunctive 




ί I. 


λϋωμαι 








s. 


- 2. 

.3• 

I. 


λΐη 
λνηται 

λϋώμίθα 








p. 


2. 

.3• 


λΐιησθί 
λϋωνται 







Imperative. 



S. 



Ρ. 3 



ί 2. λϋου 
[ 3• λν£σ•θω 



λυΕσθε 
λνί'σ-θων or 
λνίσ-Θωίταν 



Infinitive. 



λν€σθαι 



λν(Γ€(Γθαι 



Participle. 



λνόμ€νθ5, 
λυομένη, 
λϋόμίνον (§ 46) 



Κυσόμ€νος, 
-η, -ον 
(§46) 



MIDDLE VOICE OF λΰω. 



163 









I Aorist. 


Perfect. 




Pluperf. 


Indicative. 




I. 


ίλϋσ-άμην 


λέλυμαι 




Ιλελύμην 




S. 


2. 


ίλνσ-ω 


λί'λυσαι 




έλελυσο 






.3• 


ίλΐσατο 


λί'λυται 




«λίλυτο 






I. 


«λϋσάμίθα 


λ€λνμεθα 




έλελύμεθα. 




P. 


2. 


ίλυσ-ασ-θί 


λ€λυθΓθ€ 




ελε'λυίτθε 






.3• 


(λνσαντο 


λίλυνται 




ίλ^λυντο 


Subjunctive 




I. 


λνα-ωμαι 


λ€λνμ€'ν05 


ώ 






s. 


2. 


λνσΐ] 


λ€λυμ€ν09 η3 








.3• 


λνσ-ηται 


λελυμί'νοξ 


ΐ1 








I. 


λνσ-ώμεθα 


λ€λυμ^νοι 


ώμεν 




p. 


2. 


λϋσ-ησθ€ 


λίλυμίνοι 


ητ€ 








.3• 


λνσωνται 


λίλυμένοι 


ώο-ι 




Imperative. 


s. 


' 2. 


λΰσαι 


[λε'λυίτο 








.3• 


λνσάσθω 


λελύσθω 







12. λϊσ-ασ-θε λελνσθε 

3• λϋσ-άσθων or λελύσ-θων or 
λυσάσθωσαν λελνσθωσ-ανί 



Infinitive. 



λνσ-ασθαι λελύσθαι 



Participle. λνσ-άμενο5, -η, λελυμίνο?, -η^ 

-ον(§46) -ον(§46) 



1 64 



ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



3. Passive Voice of λΰω. 

Fut. Perf?- i Aor?- I Future^• 

Indicative. ί I. [λίλΰσ-ομαι «λύθην λυθήσ-ομαι 

S. ] 2. λ€λνση,-σ-6ΐ Ιλύθη? λνθήστ], -σ-€ΐ 

\ 3• λίλνσ-ίται έλνθη λυθήσίται 

II. λίλνσ-όμίθα Ιλύθημεν λυθηςτόμΐθα 

2. λελνσ-ίσθί ίλύθητ€ λυθήσ-ίσθί 

3• λ€λ•ϋ(Γονται3 ΙλνΑησαν λυθήσονται 



Subjunctive. Γ ι. 

S. 2. 



Ρ.;; 



λυθώ 
λυθήδ 
λυθή 

λνθώμΐν 

λυθήτί 

λυθώοΊ 



Imperative. 



S. 



λνθητι 
λυθήτω 

λύθητί 
λ-υθί'ντων or 
λνθήτωσαν 



Infinitive. 



Participle. 



λΕλνσ-εσθαι λυθήναι λυθήσ-ΕσΌαι 

λ£λυ(ΓΟμ€νο5, λ,υθίίβ, λυθη(ΓΟμ€νθ5? 

-η, -ον λυθ€Ϊσ•α, -η, -ον 



(§46) 



λυθ€ν(§43) (§46) 



^ All other tenses of the passive voice are the same in form 
as the middle- 



SECOND AORIST, PERFECT, ETC., OF λειττω. 165 

§ 57. Second Aorist (Active and Middle) and 
Second Perfect and Pluperfect of Xetirw. 



2 Aor. Act. 


2 ^<?r. y]//i/. 


2 /Vr/. 


2 Phiperf. 


Indicative. 








1 I . έ'λπΓΟν 


έλιττόμην 


Xe'Xoiira 


[ίλελοί-π-ην 


S. I 2. €X.nres 


ίλίτΓΟυ 


λίλοΐΊτα? 


6λ€λοίτΓη5 


I 3. έ'λιτΓί 


ίλί•π•6το 


λίλοΐΊΤί 


€λ€λθίΐΓ€ΐ(ν^ 


1 I. €λί-7Γθμ£ν 


Ιλιττόμίθα 


λ€λοί•π•αμ£ν 


ίλίλοίΐΓίμίν 


P. 1 2. Ιλ£-Π-6Τ€ 


€λίΐΓ£σ•θ6 


λελοίττατί 


eXe\otireT6 


L 3. ίλιττον 


ίλίίΓοντο 


λίλοίτταοΓΐ 


€\e\oiiri(rav] 


Subjunctive. 








[ I. λίττω 


λίττωμαι 


[λίλοίττω 




S. -; 2. λίττη? 


λίτττ) 


λ€λθί•7Γη5 




1 3- λίτττ] 


λίττηται 


λίλοίπη 




I I . λίττωμίν 


λιπα'μέθα 


λίλοίπωμεν 




P. 1 2. λίττητί 


λίπησθί 


λίλοίττητί 




1 3- λίττωσι 


λίττωνται 


λίλοίιτωσι] 




Imperative. 








ς. Γ 2. λίτΓί 

ι 3• λιττίτω 


λιΤΓοΰ 


[λΑ.οηΓ€ 




λι-ΤΓί'σθω 


λίλοιττετω 





f 2. λί"Π•6Τ€ λίΐΤίσ-θβ λ€λθίτ7€Τ6 

Ρ. J 3• λιττόντων or λιττεοτθων or λελοιπίτωσ-αν] 
ι λιττίτωσαν λητίΊτθωσαν 



Infinitive. 



λπΓί'σθαι [XeXoiirlvai] 



Participle. 

λιττών, λιπόμ£νο5, -η, λίλοΐΊτώδ, 

λΐΊΓοΰσα. -ον (§ 46) λελοιιτνΐα, 

λιπόν (§ 45, <γ) -iros (§ 43) 



ι6ό 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



58. Future and First Aorist Active and Middle 
(Liquid Forms) and Second Aorist and 
Second Future Passive of φαίνω. 



Indicative. 



Flit. Ac 

V ■ " 

Is 

ii 



Subjunctive. 



Imperative. 



13 

-ii 

S.I 2 

P• 3 



Infinitive. 



Participle. 



av(o 

αν€Ϊς 

lavei 



ανουμίν 

αν€ίτ€ 

ανοϋσι. 



ψαν€ΐν 

ψανων, 
φανονσα, 
φανονν 
(§44) 



Fut. Mid. I Aor. Act. 

φανοΰμαι ΐφηνα 

φαν€ΐ. φαντ) έ'φηνας 
φαν€Ϊται ί'φηνί 

φανοΰμεθα έφήναμεν 
φανΰσθβ ΐφήνατε 

φανοννται ί'φηναν 

φήνω 

φήντ|$ 

φήνη 

φήνωμϊν 

φήνητ€ 

φήνωίΓΐ 

φήνον 
φηνάτω 

φήνατ€ 
φηνάντων or 
φηνάτ«(Γαν 

φαν€ΐ(Γθαι φήναι 

φανοΰμ€νο$, φήναβ, 
-η, -ον φήνάσ-α, 

(§ 46) φήναν 

(§43) 



FUIURES AND AORISTS OF φαίνω. 



ϊβη 



I Aor. Mid. 2 Aor. Pass. 2 Fiit. Pass. 



Indicative. 


f'• 

-* 2. 
.3• 


«φηνάμην 


ίφάνην 


φανήσομαι 


S. 


Ιφήνω 


€φάνη5 


φανήσ€ΐ, -σ-η 




ίφήνατο 


€φάνη 


φανήσ-€ται 




I. 

- 2. 


ίφηνάμεθα 


έφάνημ,ίν 


φανη(ΓΟμ€θα 


P. 


ίφήνασθε 


ίφάνητί 


φανή(Γ€σ•θί 




.3• 


ίφήναντο 


ίφάνησαν 


φανήσ-ονται 


Subjunctive. 


i^• 


φήνωμαι 


φανώ 




S. 


1 

J 2, 


φήνη 


φανηδ 






.3• 


φήνηται 


φανη 






I. 


φηνώμΐθα 


φανώμ€ν 




P. 


2. 
.3• 


φήνησθί 


φανήτ€ 






φήνωνται 


φανώσ-ι 




Imperative, c 


i2. 


φήναι 


φάνηθι 






l3- 


φηνά(Γθω 


φανήτω 





\ 2. φήνασθί φάνητ€ 

Ρ. J 3• φηνάσθων or φανί'ντων ΟΓ 
[ φηνάσθωσαν φανήτωσαν 



Infinitive. 



φήνασ-θαι φανήναι φανή<Γ€σθαι 



Participle. φηνάμ€νο5, φαν£ί5. φανησ-όμίνοβ, 

-η, -ον φαν€ΐσ•α, -η, -ον 

(§46) φανεν (§46) 

(§43,0 



1 68 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



'T3 



"^ 






.» <-» <^ 
'3 ο ο 


ο 


ο ο 


«3 ο ο 


^ ^ ^ 


^ 


^ ^ 


^ ^ <<. 


p• f^ P" 


p- 


ρ- ρ• 


ρ• ρ- ρ- 


«O lO (O 


(β 


(lO <0 


(Ο (Ο (Ο 



D 



.Ξ -θ- 



3ΰωοωΟ 3?r:!SS 



^ - - . <Λ ,. ^ ^ " 

*-« y^~s. r ΐ 'ϋ ίΟ <•* V"r 



G 3 Η <ϊ 



3 w .V. 

(Λ S , _, 

I S I .. .i?. .d. <l .s .1 



> 



lU /^s »- h I- I- Η h 

ο V4J «4^ Ο W Ο 

a ^ώ "Si "a "ΰ -d "β 



t/< 



^ ^ '< ^ •< >< 'K ^ ■< 



Ο . , - ΰ ^ '3 'ϊ .'5 ο % "S S <3 .^ <P= 

W ^"i "« -Θ-4--4- 4--Θ--6- ^ •6--θ--θ• 



3\S "S "S "ϊ J § "§ ^?"? 

Ο Π "^ ίζ -θ- -β- -θ- -^-β--©- [^: ■0--Θ--Θ- 



3 <ΰ' 'd' <3 <d <3 «3 <* 






a. A i s. s. .3. 



.1-1 C3 




contract' verbs. 169 



δ w 



b 

•3 

/< 

(O (O CO bO (lO 



3 t> 
3 w h 3 



<3 '3 <3 ο ο ο ο ° ο ο "3 J< 3 3 

^ ^ ^ ^^^^^ ^ ^ :^:<:< 

F .£" f=" "F F .F -Γ ,Γ F .Γ to ίο (Ο 



3- *^ § 

.3 ρ- 3 



ο ο "o ο ο ο ^Ο "Ο ^ ^ ^ 

00 00 00 00 00 CO CO iijij-S 



3 b "* 

i ^ t t ^ 









^vu ^vt» "^ ω ui ^VK ω ο w ίΡ ^w CV ^^ -^ -^ .-^ 

^^-^ "Q, c< ^ ^ '< ^ t ^ ^-< il2d 

^^ \.-^ ^^ ^^ \ ■ S • V ' S_^ \ • Vi ~^ ^^ ■^^ ^^ 



» 3 b 

W u. -> ^ UJ I- "^ 

<3 «δ '3 rd sg <iJ -3 ° -d <d 

i i i ^ i i i i i 



^ 



,0 p- 3 lu ^w lu ^O K^w ω ο ci S 

'd ^ti ^ΰ § S "S g ° β "S ^S §. i 

,3- ,3- ,3- .5- ,3- ,3- ,3- ,3- ,3- ,3- v^'t" 






170 ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



^ ^ ^ 000000 "3 ο <3 ^3 e3 <3 

(Soous p-p-p-p-p-p- p-p-p-p-p-p- 

.«::«. <v ciocob0ci0(0(o μμμμμιο 

'?: 

••ο _. /^ _ 

v§ ^5 ο ο ^«ϋ ,« ^o w ο 3 .£=!=■ 3 κ- 3 

"c- a-^ '< ■<■< -< ^ ^ '^•-S.'< ^ '< -i 

00 CO *« J^.S",^ 5=~ ss-^S" ,5" ,5" !=- s- R- ff- 



^ J< ^ Q - ο w Ϊ ο 'i ο .ri <3 <P= <Ρ• -3 cp• <3 

^ '^ -Θ- -e- -Θ- -Θ- -4- -Θ- ~ -Θ- -Θ- -Θ- -Θ- -Θ- -Θ- 



-Θ- -Θ- -e- 



■^ 



viJ ^w lu a %i ο ω ,<u ^O ,w ο ? ,3 ,5Λ S" 3 p- 3 

•ς ■^ ^ ■ ^^ ^^ \^ ^.^ ^ ^ ^— ' >_/ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ 



imi nyu '^u; 



-<_ !-(/— ο ΐ:/— \ _si 



I. 5 2 <3 <* <5 -3 <§ <3 <3 <d- <5 -3 <§ <3 

i3- iS- -5- i i d. i i i i i i i i A 

-fc -t .« 'i I- h h 'f 'f Η ΐ 'f 'f h h 

a § a. ^cs "S -a a "d ^d ^d "d "d d ^d -d 

'f f-e .3- ,3- ,3- ,3- ,3- ,3- .3- ,3 ,3- ,3- ,3- ,3- 

0^ c/5 oi oi ai 



Ο Ο Ο Ο 

^ f=^ ^ ^ 

(Ο bO (Ο (Ο 



CONTRACT VERBS. I?! 



<= OB b <P * ^ ,^- ^ > ,i 

b k ^ 'P b i vp cp <p vp <p <p 

SOriS ip ^p OOOCOO 

ο q ^ ^ ,< ^ ^ ^ 

^ ^ p-p-p-p-p-p- 



CO <^C CO CO <^ ^^ ^2/ w w w w w ^^ 



. ^p 5 ο 'i ο 'i ο 

►5i5 ^ ^ ,< >< ^ >< 

^J. -β--θ--θ--«--θ-:θ- 








d > 




b 3 


3 


« 3 <» 


^ 


e> <r> l•. b 




b b o^i 


'i "i /< 


^ ^ 


'i -^ ^ 


•«-•«- 


-Θ--Θ- 




>. 




a ^^ 


'T 


lu 3 3 


^^■φ 


<Φ ς£, <^ 


J.| 


b ^b ^.b 




^w ω Ο ^. 


-^ -^ 


'< '< '< 


-^ ^ 




-Θ--Θ- 


■Θ- -θ- -θ- 


^■^ \_^ 


•^ ^^^ 




^^ 




d > 




b 3 


3 


w 3 , «? 


^ 


Φ <» fe b 


b 


b b °-d 


«3 ^§ 


<§ -d i 



<^ 









"^ -«- n^ -©- 



'<'<'< '< ^ '< 

f.\^ ^\U "W ''W "W »»vi; 



-3-3-3• 
ρ f f l•• 

3 ^3 3 _g S 

S ."= b b . b b ^3. 

-a a -d d ο a "S S 

:i. 3. a. a. S, 3- 3- 



5 p• ο 'S Φ h 

,f- -3 <3 <d -3 'd <3 

% i. i. i d. i i 

I- 



I' 


** 


.. 






ϊ^ 




^^ 


CIS Jf 


ο 


?^ 


^-^ 


ο 


ω <φ 


κ 


3. 


ρ 


l~ 


vS- b 


ε 


^o 


ο 




^O ω 


ο 


ci 


-d 


^d 


ώ ^d 


"d 


§- 


S. 


2- 


3- 3- 


3- 


h 


_^P 


_^w 


C C 


κ 


'Ul 












^^ 


~-^ 


^ '^ 


^ 






172 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



Conjugation of μι Verbs. 

§ 60. Verbs in μί differ from verbs in ω in 
the Present and Second Aorist Systems only. 
See Lessons XXXI. and XXXII. 

§ 61. Synopsis of ΐστημι, τίθημι, and ΒίΒωμι, 
in the Present and Second Aorist Systems. 



Indie. 
ϊστημι 

ϊστην 
τ(θημι, 

€τ£θην 
8($ωμι 

cSiSovv 

4'στην 



ισ-ταμαι 

ίσ•τάμην 
τίθίμαι 

ίτιθίμην 
δίδομαι 

Ιδιδόμην 



SubJ. 
ί(Γτώ 

τιθώ 

διδώ 



«ΓΤ» 

θω 
Sw 



Active. 
Imper. 
ϊσ-τη 

τίθ€ΐ 

δ(δου 

στήθι 

θες 

86s 



Infin . 
ί(Γτάναι 

τιθίναι 

διδόναι 



(Γτήναι 

θεΐναι 

δούναι 



Passive and Middle. 

1(Γτώμαι ϊστασο ϊ<Γτασθαι 



τιθωμαι 
διδώμαι 



τίθίσο 
δίδοσο 



τίθίσθαι 
δίδοσθαι 



Part. 
IcTTOs 

τιθίίβ 

διδου$ 



στα? 

OcCs 

δον? 



ιστάμενος 

τιθε'μενθ8 

8ιδόμενο$ 



ο -ύ ! εθεμην 
f, • 600 μην 



θωμαι 
δώμαι 



θον 
δον 



Οεσοαι 
δόσθαι 



θε'μενθ9 
δόμενο$ 



§62. 



CONJUGATION OF μί VERBS. 

PRESENT SYSTEM. 

Active Voice. 

Freseni Indicative. 



173 





.3• 


ϊσ•τημι 


τίθημι 


8(δωμι 


Sing. 


ϊστη? 


τίθηδ 


δ(8ω$ 




ϊ(Γτηο-ι 


τίθησ-ι. 


8ίδω(Γΐ 




i^• 


ϊ<Γταμ€ν 


τίθ€μ€ν 


δίδομ€ν 


Plur. 


1 

- 2. 
.3• 


ϊ<Γτατ€ 


τίθίΤ€ 


SCSoTC 




Ισ-τάσ-ι. 


τιθ€ασι 


διδόασΊ. 



Imperfect. 



Γι. 

] 


ϊστην 


ίτίθην 


ΙδΙδουν 


Sing, -ι 2. 


ϊστηδ 


€τίθ€1$ 


€δ(δου$ 


ί3• 


ϊ<Γτη 


€τίθίΙ 


€δίδου 


Ι. 

Plur. -Ι 2. 
.3• 


ϊ(Γταμ€ν 


€τ(θεμ£ν 


Ιδ(8ομ€ν 


ϊ<Γτατ€ 


ίτ£θ€Τ€ 


€δίδθΤ€ 


ϊστασαν 


€τίθ€σαν 


€δίδοσ-αν 



Present Subjunctive. 





I. 

2. 


ί(ΓΤω 


τιθώ 


διδώ 


Sing. 


ίσ-τηβ 


τιθτ)5 


διδω$ 




3• 


Ισ-τη 


τιθ^ 


δίδω 




' I. 


ίσ•τ«μ€ν 


τιθώμεν 


διδώμεν 


Plur. 


- 2. 


1<Γτήτε 


τιθητί 


διδωτΐ 




.3• 


Ισ"τ«<Γΐ 


τιθι5(Γΐ 


διδώοΊ, 



174 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



Sing. 



Plur. 







Present Imper 


ative. 




2. 


ϊσ-τη 




Τίθ€1 




SCSov 


3• 


ΐ<Γτάτω 




TiOe'rw 




δι8ότ(ι> 


2. 


ϊστατί 




τίθίΤί 




δ£δοτ€ 


3• 


ί<Γτάντων 


' or 


τιθ€ντων or 


διδόντων or 




Ιστάτωσ-αν 


τιθίτωαταν 


διδότωσ-αν 



Present Infinitive. 
τι,θ€ναι 



διδόναι 



Present Participle (§45). 
TiOeis 



8i.8ovs 



Sing. 



Plur. 





Passive 


AND Middle. 








Present Indicative. 




I. 


Ι'σταμαι 




τίθεμαι. 


δίδομαι 


2. 


ϊσ•τασ•αι 




τ(θ£σαι 


δίδοσ-αι 


3• 


ϊσταται 




τίθίται 


δίδοται 


I. 


Ιστάμίθα 




τιθί'μίθα 


διδόμεθα 


2. 


ϊ<Γτασ•θί 




τίθίσθί 


δίδοσ-θε 


3• 


ϊσ-τανται 




τίθενται 


δίδονται 



Imperfect. 



Ι. 

Sing. J 2. 
.3• 


1σ•τόμην 


έτιθί'μην 


εδιδόμην 


ϊσ-τασ-ο 


£τίθ€σ-ο 


έδίδοσ-ο 


ϊ(Γτατο 


ίτίθίτο 


ίδίδοτο 



CONJUGATION OF μι VERBS. 



175 



Plur. 



13 



1. ίσ'τάμ€θα 

2. i'<j-Tacr0€ 

'icTTOVTO 



6τιθ6μ€θα 

ίτίθίσθί 

ίτίθίντο 



ΐδιδόμΐθα 

cSiSocrOc 

ΐδίδοντο 



Sing. ->, 2 
ί3 

Plur. - 2 



Present Subjunctive. 

(Γτώμαι τιθώμαι διδώμαι 

(Γτή τιθή 8ιδω 

(Γτήται τιθηταν διδώται 

(Γτώμΐθα τιθώμΐθα διδώμ€θα 

(Γτήσθί τιθήσθε διδωσ-θε 

(Γτώνται τιθώνται διδώνται 



Sine 



Plur. 



Present Imperative. 



Γ 2. 


ϊστασ-ο 




τίθίσ-ο 




δ(δθ(ΓΟ 


Is- 


Ιίττάσθω 




τιθ£σ-θω 




διδόσ-θω 


■ 2. 


ϊ(Γτασ•θε 




τίθ€<Γθ€ 




δίδθ(Γθ€ 


3• 


ί(Γτάσ-θων 


or 


τιθί'σ-θων 


or 


διδόσθων or 




Ιστάσθ 


j)(rav 


τιΘ€'(γΘ 


ωσάν 


διδόσθωσ-αν 



Present Infinitive. 
ΐστατθαι τ(θ€(Γθαι δίδοσΌαι, 



Present Participle (§46). 
1(Γτάμ€νο$ τιθί'μίνοβ διδόμ€νθ8 



176 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

§ 63. SECOND AORIST SYSTEM. 

Active. 

Second Aorist Indicative. 
I. €<Γτην ίθηκα^ €8ωκα^ 



Sing. J 2. ί'στη? έ'θηκα? «δωκας 

[ 3• ««ττη ίθηκ£ €δωκ€ 

Ι Ι . ε(Γτημ.€ν έθήκαμεν Ιδώκαμ€ν 

Plur. \ 2. €'<Γτητ€ ίθήκατί «δώκατε 

[3• έ'στησαν 4'θηκαν έ'δωκαν 

Second Aorist Subjunctive. 

'• I . στώ θώ δώ 

Sing, j 2. (TTfjs θήί δω9 

[ 3• *'"'"ίΙ ^ΐϊ ^ν 

Γ Ι. στώμίν θώμεν δώμεν 

Plur. 2. στήτ€ θήτ€ δώτ€ 

[ 3• <Γτώ(Γΐ. θώίτι δώ<Γΐ 

Second Aorist Imperative. 

Γ 2. «Γτήθι Ois δ05 

[ 3• «Γτήτω θέτω δότω 

2. στήτί θέτε δότε 

3. στήτωσαν θέτωσαν δότωσ^αν 
or στάντων or θε'ντων or δόντων 



Sing. 
Plur. 



Second Aorist Infinitive. 
(Γτήναι θεΐναι δούναι 

Second Aorist Participle. 
στά5 (§ 45) θε£8 (§ 45) δοΰβ (§ 45) 

^ No 2 aor. ind. act. of τίθημι and δίδωμι occurs — so the 
I aor. in -κα is given. Cf. 235, 3, note. 



CONJUGATION OF μι VERBS. 1 77 

Middle. 
Second Aorist Middle Indicative. 

!I. £θ£μην ίδόμην 

2. έ'θου έ'δου 

3- €'0£TO 4'δοτο 

Γ Ι. €θεμ£θα «δόμεθα 

Plur. \ 2. €θ€σ-θ€ €'δοσ•θ€ 

[ 3• έ'θίντο ίδοντο 

Second Aorist Middle Subjunctive. 

Γ I . θώμαΐ δώμαι 

Sing. J 2. θή δω 

• 1^ 3• θήται δώται 

ίΐ. θώμίθα δώμεθα 

2. θήσθ€ δώσ-θί 

3. θώνται δώνται 



Sing. 
Plur. 



Second Aorist Middle Imperative. 

2. θου δοΰ 

3. θΐσ-θω δόσ-θ(ι> 

2. θε'σθί δόσθ€ 

3• θίσ-θωσ-αν δόσθωσ-αν 

or θί'σ-θων or δόσ-θων 

Second Aorist Middle Infinitive. 
θΐσθαι δόσ-θαι 

Second Aorist Middle Participle. 
θΐ'μενοβ (§ 46) δομένο? (§ 46) 

Ν 



178 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAIMENT GREEK. 



Irregular Verbs of the μι Form. 

§ 64. The verbs βΐμί, am, Ίημι (compounded 
with άτΓο, συν, ανά, and κατά), βίμι, go (only in 
compounds), ο2δα, know, φημί, say, are all irreg- 
ular. 



65. 



Sins. 



Plur. i 2 



€ΐμ( (stem εσ-), am. 
Present. 
Indicative. Siibjioictive. Imperative. 



I 


£ΐμ( 


ω 




2 


cl 


OS 


ϊσθι 


3 


«o-tC 


Ό 


ί'σ-τω, ήτω 


I 


€<Γμ€ν 


ώμ€ν 




2 


««ΓΤί 


ητί 


«στί 


3 


cl(r( 


ώσ-ι 


«(ττωσαν 



Ifififiittve. ίΐναι 

Participle, ών, ουσ-α, ον ; gen. ovtos, ονση$, etc. (183). 



Sing. 



Plur. 



Imperfect. 


Future. 


Indicative. 


Indicative. 


Infinitive. 


I. ην (ή'μην)Ι 


€'(Γθμαι 


€σ•€σ•θαι 


2. ηδ (ησ-θα) 


4'σ£ΐ, €<ΓΤ| 




3• η" 


4'<Γται 


Participle 


Ι . ημ€ν (ημ£θα) 


€(ΓΟμ6θα 


Ισόμενος 


2. ητ€ 


eVeo-Ge 




3. ησ-αν 


έ'σ-ονται 




1 


Cf. 78, α. 





IRREGULAR VERBS OF THE μί FORM. 1 79 

S 66. άφίημι (stem e-), revtit. 

The following forms of this verb occur in 
the New Testament : 
Indicative Active. — (Pres. άφβΐ?, as though from άφίω) 

άφίησ-ι, άφί€μ€ν, άφίομεν, άφί€Τ€, άφίουοΊ. Imperf. 

ή'φΐί. Fut. άφήσ-ω, άφήσ£ΐ$, etc. Aor. άφήκα, άφή- 

Kas, etc ^ 
Indicative Mid. and Pass. — Pres. άφίεμαι.ι Fut. αφ£- 

θήσ-ομαι.^ΡεΓί. 3 per. plur. άφέωνται. Aor. pass, άφίθην. 
Subjunctive Act. — 2 aor. άφη, άφώμεν, άφήτί. Pass. 

Aor. άφεθχ). 
Imperative Act. — Pres. άφιίτω. 2 aor. άφ€5, αφίτ€. 
Participle Act. — 2 aor. άφίίβ, άφίντε?. 
Infinitive Act. — Pres. άφιέναι. 2 aor. act. άφΐΐναι. 

a. In 2 compounds with σύν, the pres. ind. 3 per. plur. 
has <ΓΛ)νιάσ-ι, and (rvvCov<ri. Subjv. συνίωσ-ι and 2 aor. 
συνώσ-ι, and with άνά 2 aor. άνω. Aor. pass. ind. άνέθη. 

b. Pres. part. o-wuCs and συνίων are found. The former 
is more regular and occurs in σ-υνιίντο8, συνιίντίί. άνίντίβ 
2 aor. act. part, also occurs. 

§ 67. «ϊμ•»- (stem 1-^1 go. 

But few forms of this verb occur, and always 
in compounds. 

Indicative. — Pres. -ϊασ-ι. Imperf. -■jfti, -ηίο-αν. 

Infinitive. Uvai. 

Participle. ιών, -rov<ra, -Ιόν, regular like ών, ονσ-α, 

ov (183). 

^ Conjugated like the mid. of τίθημι. 

2 Such forms only are here given of the compounds of ϊημι 
as might be difficult to recognize. The lexicon ought to be 
consulted for all verb forms 



1 8ο ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENl GREEK. 

I 68. olSa (stem ιδ-), know. 

This verb is a second perfect and conjugated 
regularly olha, olSa<;, etc. The 3 per. plur. has 
ϊσασί once, lare in 2 per. plur. is also found. 

Imperfect. — ή'δίΐν,ι -p'Seis, etc. 

Future. — βίδήσ-ουσ-ι. 

Subjunctive. — «18», «Ιδώμίν, €ΐ8ήτί. 

Imperative. — ϊσ-τ€, k/Knvye (occurs once). 

Infinitive. — «Ιδεναι. 

Participle. — €l8us, €ΐ8υία, etSos, like λ€λυκώ5 (§43). 

^ 69. Φημί (stem φα-), say. 

This verb is found in pres. ind. φημί and 3 
per. sing, and plur. φησί and φασί. Imperf. βφη, 
he said. 

§ 70. The following forms of the optative 
mood occur in the New Testament : 

1. Present Tense. 

€χοι, OekoL, ίχοί€ν, uyj, Βυναίμην, Βνναιντο, πάσχοίτε. 

2. /^z'rsi Aortst. 

ττλεονάσαι, ττερισσευσαι, κατίνθνναι, ποιτ^σαιεν, φηλα- 
φήσααν, ΐ.νζαίμ.ην. 

3 . Second Aorist. 

φάγοι, τύχοι, δω>;, evpoiev, όναι/Λτ/ν, γένοιτο, λάβοί. 
4• First Aorist Passive. 
ττΧτηθννθύη, Χο-γισθΐ.ίη. 

1 In fact a 2 pluperf., but the perf. and pluperf. have in this 
verb the sense of the pres. and imperf. 



OPTATIVE MOOD. TENSE SYSTEMS. l8l 

It may be noted («) ^χοι, θελοι, 8υναίμην, Svvaivro, πλε- 
ονάσαι, ττερισσευσαι, Karevui'vai, €νξαίμην, φάγοι, τνχοι, 
πάσχοιτΐ, ΰναίμην, γίνοιτο, form the Optative by the ad- 
dition of I, which, with preceding vowel, forms a diphthong ; 
this diphthong is always long, (d) ε'ίη, ττληθυνθίίΐ], λογι- 
σ^είη form the Optative by adding ιη ; in the case of δωτ; 
the iota is siibscript. (c) t\oitv, evpoiev, ιτουησακν are 
also made by adding ιη, the η in the third person plural 
changing to €. (c/) φηλαφησΐκίν differs from ποιτ^σαιεν 
in that € and α have changed place. 

§ 71. The following examples will illustrate 
the uses of the optative : 

1. T/ie Optative of Wishing. 

Rom. 15:5. δ δε 6eos . . . δω'τ; νμχν, now may God 
grattt unto you ! 

2. The Potential Optative. 

Acts 26 : 29. (.νζαίμην αν τω θ^ω, I could wish to God. 

3. indirect Question. 

Luke I : 29. διελογιζετο ποταττό? tlf] 6 άσπασ/Λος οϋτος, 
she was discussing what manner of salutation 
this 7night be. 

4. The Conditional Optative. 

I Cor. 14: 10. £t Tvypi., if it should chance. 

Tense Systems. 

§ 72. No one verb has all nine tense systems, 
but the following table shows the various tenses 
(as far as found in the New Testament) in λυω, 



l82 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



loose, βάΧλω, cast, <γράφω, zunte, and φθ€φω, 
desh'oy. 

Present . 
Future . 

1 Aorist . 

2 Aorist . 

1 Perfect 

2 Perfect 
Perfect J Perf. 

Mid. I Flit. P. \t\v<r%- 

iPassi"^""^• λ«β*(η)- βληθί(η)- 

\ Fut. λυθησ%- βληθησ%- 



. . . \v%. 


βολλ%- 


γραφ%- 


φθ£ΐρ% 


. . . \v<r%- 


βαλ€%- 


γραψ%- 


φθ€ρ%- 


. . . λυσ-α- 


βαλ%- 


γραψα- 


ψθ€ΐρα- 


. . . λ(λυκα- 


β(βληκα- 










γ£γραψα• 




'erf λίλυ- 


β,βλη- 


γίγραμ- 





2 Pass. 



j Aor. 
[ Fut. 



γραφ€(η)- φθαρ£(η)- 
φθαρη<Γ%- 



S. 



Ρ. 



73. 



Personal Endings. 





Active. 


Middle and Passive. 




Primary. Secondary. 


Primary. 


Secondary. 


I. 


μι V 


μαι 


μην 


2. 


β, (<Γΐ) β 


(ται 


σο 


3• 


<Γΐ, τι 


τα ι 


το 


I. 


μ€ν μ€ν 


μ€θα 


μΐθα 


2. 


Τ€ Τ€ 


σ-θ€ 


σθί 


3• 


νσ-ι, άσι ν, <rav 


νται 


ντο 



74. The personal endings of the imperative 



are : 

Active. 

r 2. θΐ f 2. T€ 

S. \ "K. τω P. i X. ντωνΟΓ 
[ 1^ τωσ-αν 



Middle and Passive. 
2. o-o ί 2. σ-θ£ 

3- σ-θω P. \ 3. σθ«ν or 
[ σ-θωσαν 



AUGMENT. 183 

§ 75. The endings of the infinitive are : 

^ .. J iv, contracted with € to eiv. 
[ ναι, £vai. 
Mid. and Pass, σθοι 

§ 76. The tenses of the indicative are formed 
by adding to the verb theme, with certain modi- 
fications, the following suffixes. 

Pres. Fid. Aor. Perf. Pliiperf. 
Active: -%- -<r%- -σ-ο- -κα- -κίΐ- 

Middle and Passive have the same suffixes 
except in perf. and pluperf., where there is 
none. The aorist passive has -^e- for i aorist 
and -e- for 2 aorist. 

Augment. 

§ 77. I. When the verb begins with a con- 
sonant the vowel e is prefixed to the theme in 
the imperfect and aorist ; e.g. e-\v-o-v, e -λυ-σα. 
This is called syllabic augment. In the perfect 
the initial consonant is placed before the aug- 
ment ; e.g. Xe -Χυ-κα. This is called reduplication. 
In the pluperfect the reduplicated form may be 
augmented ; e.g. i-\e-Xu-K€i-v. 

2. When a verb begins with a vowel this 
vowel is lengthened in all past tenses : α = η, 



184 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

β = η, ο = ω. Such an augment is called temporal 
augment ; e.g. ά'γω, lead, Ύ]ηον ; ίρχομαι,, come, 
ηργόμ.7]ν; ακούω, hear, ηκουσα. An initial diph- 
thong may lengthen the first vowel ; e.g. αΐτβω, 
ask for, Ύ)τησα; βϋ-χομαι, pray, ηνχ^όμ,ην. 

3. Verbs beginning with two consonants or a 
double consonant {ζ, ξ, ψ) have the augment and 
no reduplication in the perfect and pluperfect. 
A mute (§ 2) followed by a liquid λ, μ, ν, ρ, is an 
exception to this ; e.g. κρίνω, judge, has perfect 
κέκρικα, and καΧίω, call, has perfect κβκΧηκα. 

4. Verbs beginning with a rough mute φ, χ, Θ, 
have the corresponding smooth mute ττ, κ, τ, in 
the reduplication ; e.g. φιλέω, love, ττβ-φίΧη-κα ; 
θεάομαι, behold, τ€-θ&α-μαί. 

The Eight Classes of Verbs. 

§ 78. It is necessary in the study of the Greek 
verb to determine the theme or root, for on this, 
with certain modifications mostly of tense and 
mood signs, the various tenses are built. This 
theme may or may not correspond to the theme 
as seen in the present indicative. More fre- 
quently the present stem is a strengthened form 
of the theme ; e.g. \ύω, loose, has theme and 
present stem \v- the same, while «λβτττω, steal, 
theme kXett-, has present stem κΧβτττ-. λαμ- 
βάνω, receive, theme \αβ-, present stem \αμβαν-. 



THE EIGHT CLASSES OF VERBS. 1 85 

With reference to the relation of the theme 
to the present stem the verbs in Greek are 
divided into eight classes : 

§ 79. First Class. — Verb stem remains un- 
changed t]iroughoiit. The present stem is formed 
by adding simply the variable vowel % to the 
theme : 

Theme. Pres. stem. 

λέ-γω, say λεγ- Xey% 

νικάω, conquer νίκα.- νικα.% 

§ 80. Second Class. — Strong vozvel forms. 
Some verbs have a theme ending in a mute, § 2, 
preceded by a short vowel, principally ι or v. 
The present theme of these verbs is formed by 
lengthening this vowel, l to et, ν to eu, and the 
addition of % : 

Theme. Pres. stem. Fut. 

ΐΓίίθω, persuade πιθ- ττΐ-ΐθΎβ πασ% 

^(.v^f>),flee φυ-γ- φ€ν•/% φεν$% 

§ 81. Third Class. — Verds in -ιττω or the 
Ύ -class. Some verbs have the theme in a labial 
mute 7Γ, β, φ, that form the present stem by 
adding τ% to the theme : 

Theme. Pres. stem. Fut. 

κλίτΓτω, steal κλεπ- κΧϊ.τγτ% kXc{J/% 

κρύτΓτω, /i/de κρνφ- κρνπτ% κρνφ% 

a. κρνπ-τω is for κρνφ-το». 



1 86 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

§82. Fourth Class. — Iota class. 

1. Some verbs having a theme ending in a 
palatal mute /c, 7, χ, add t % to form the present 
stem. This ι % with the mute gives σσ%, rarely 

Theme. Pres. stem. Fut, 

κηρνσσ-ω, preach κηρυκ- κηρνσσ% κηρνζ% 

•κατάσ-σ -t», svtite τταταγ- 7Γατασσ% ττα.τα^% 

2. When t% is added to a theme in δ- the 
present stem ends \ηζ%•. 

Theme. Pres. stem. Fut. 

βαπτίζω, baptize /?απτιδ- βαπτιζ% /?α7ΓΤΐσ% 
σ-ώζ», save σωδ- σωζ% σωσ% 

3- Α theme in a liquid, λ, μ, ν, ρ, may add l% 
for the present. \l% becomes λλ% : 

Theme. Pres. stem. Fut. 

άγΎ^λλω, announce ayytX- άγγελλ% άγγελ€% 
fia.\\m,cast βα\- βαλλ% βαλί% 

4. But with ν and ρ the ί usually passes over 
to the preceding vowel and with α or e forms a 
diphthong : 

Theme. Pres. stem. Fut. 

αϊρω, take away ap• alp% apf.% 

φαίνω, show φαν- φαίν% φαν€% 



THE EIGHT CLASSES OF VERBS. 1 87 

§83. Fifth Class. — N-c/ass. The present 
stem of some verbs is formed by adding v% to 
the theme : 

Theme. Pres. stem. 

irCv», drink ttl- iriv% 

1. The suffix may be -av%. 

Theme. Pres. stem. 

ά{ΐαρτάνω, sin αμαρτ- αμαρταν% 

2. Under this class (i) come several verbs 
that insert a nasal μ, ν, 7, before the final mute : 





Theme. 


Pres. stem. 


λαμβάνω, receive 


λα/3- 


\αμβο.ν% 


τυγχάνω, happen 


τυχ- 


τυγχαν% 



3. The suffix may be -νυμι, after a vowel 
-ννυμι. 





Theme. 


Pres. ind. 


δε(κνυμι, show 


δ«κ- 


δει'κνυ/Λΐ 


ζώννυμι, gird 


ζω- 


ζώνννμι 


ομνυμι, swear 


ομ- (ομο) 


ομννμί 



§ 84. Sixth Class. — Verds in -σκω^ the in- 
ceptive class. A few verbs form their present 
stem by adding σκΎ^ or ισκ% to the theme : 





Theme. 


Pres. stem, 


γινώ(Γκω, know 


yvo- 


γινωσκ% 


ίυρίσ-κω,^?«ί/ 


tvp- 


ίνρισκ% 



1 88 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

§ 85. Seventh Class. — μι added to shnple 
stem. This class includes most of the verbs of 
the yut-Conjugation, which form their present 
and imperfect tenses luiihotit the use of %. 

Theme. Pres. ind. 

ϊσ-τημι, make stand στα- ΐ-στημί 

φημ£, say φα- φημί 

§ 86. Eighth Class. — Mixed class. Verbs 
of this class are among the irregular verbs and 
form different tenses on entirely distinct stems. 
See the list of irregular verbs. 





Tl 


lemes. 


εσθίω, eat 


ca^i- 


φαγ- 


όράω, see 


OpCL- 


07Γ- ιδ- 


τρ€χω, run 


rpcx- 


8ραμ- 


φ€ρω, bear 


φερ- 


OL- evcK- 



§ 87. The following verbs may be classified 
according to the principles laid down above. 

Βοξάζω, άκονω, άλείφο), τυτττω, λανθάνω, )(αίρ(ύ, κράζω, 
στέλλω, νίπτω, άρχομαι, αγοράζω, ανοίγω, τίθημι, οίοάσκω, 
εγείρω, άγγε'λλω, φθάνω, ζάω, αττοκτύνω, τηρεω, φείδομαι, 
€χω, ερωτάω, ρηγννμι, μανθάνω, άφίημι, υποτάσσω, μένω, 
θέλω, πννθάνομαι, κατάγννμι, εκτείνω, ανζάνω, αποθνήσκω, 
αΐτέω, ε'ντελλο/χαι, 8ί8ωμι, εκκόπτω, γράφω. 

§ 88. The following table gives the principal 
parts of the most common irregular verbs in the 
New Testament. The aim is to give only such 
forms as occur. A rare compound or a variant 
reading may in some few cases present a form 
that is not given. 



TABLE OF IRREGULAR VERBS. 1 89 






g-t: 



ο 1Λ . . 



3 

^ .1 -I: 



3- Χ ■®- 



H£ 



>^ 






« 3 



- ^ - -a ο 

I 8^ ^r^ § I .^ « g al 

g -α ij^'S fris-»?^-??- »Si• "a "a -p• Ji-"a 



3 3 

b <3 .b 



^ 



»a a -a *a "^s "B -a "a "a a -a 



« ^ '^ 



•^ a (^> 



<U ;ή 



►^ ^ I 5- 3' "^ f c 

-.^ 3t- ^Sa3 K^ 



*e a a 'a 'a «a "a 'β -a -a 



1 s ^ Ϊ 







'2 



190 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



.(1, 'w "w r^ '■lu CO 'w -w "w "SS- "!S• -^ 



ti S S 3 2 3 3 

h mJ" ir $ vifr CO CO P^ 5i 






oa. ?-»w ?^ 



S.ca;:< oil i I S 






^cna w;i.!i.s ΰ §-3o ί^"" ^ί» 

»v5"5a. ^• ?^ T^CO CO CO CO «O ^i^,'^ -"JUi 

.3 I 3 I '^ I 

^ §<3 .^§1-3 ^|-^T3 .^J<3 1 <3 

1 ^i ?>■ r^ ?>»CO CO CO CO CO -w -w »vi 'i 

I I 

^3 ^ § J i ^l^S 11 .3 c| g J ?;^ΰ ^2. Ν >< ^ 

02. '^S. Qa. ?>.^^cococo cocococo -ίΤ "W "ϊ *"v "U '5 




TABLE OF IRREGULAR VERBS. I9I 



-Θ- 





.5 'V 



>3. 






lit I flip i Hi 



1= 3- 



\ 


<:§ S- 


ff-, 

Q.' 




'< -^ 




».?-»>« 


W 




^ 




V 


Is 


3 


k 


J i- 




b 


"^ 


s ?^ 


"P- 


^ 










»vu 



a -<3 

3=^= 3 3|a3 



'^ ^ 






1.3 



§ b 



:i 



X^ δ. 3 -I .b ^ 

Q, b vs X -3 ^ ;.• • 



. ^ - - =^ b 

*W *s/> ^^ "φ ^φ tii 



t2 


§0 




ii 


■1 


δ 


3" 


^ 


! 


N* 




^s 




-<i 


■^ 


-1 





,3 


3" 


3" 


g 


i; 


^ 


^ 


s. 



tgi 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 









b 

I 


-Θ- 

=^3 






1- 

"ω 


α. 




b 

"Ρ- 

1 






1 


1 


1 






Μ 


I 

-Ε 

Μ 


Ι 

Ο. 




Ο 

'^ 

b 
Ρ- 

1 


a, 


^ 


π 




w 




a 














^ 


g 




"3 


ti" 


§<:§ 


ϊ 








3 


'b 


J- 




<3S 




^§- 


Ο 


S 








i; 




I 


^1• 


-Ul 












> 

Ν 



ο (, 

art 3- Q. αϊ 

Q. &, 3- a Οι 

ti Q- b 



a a 



a 



gS*!^ i.sl,=3 a §. 



^ ^"§1 IJ 1 Η fill S-1 §:tg 

»iy SVji >\ii *3 "^^ *VJ >\ij ρ »\y *Vt; >\U I ^VJ '*' *W »W *W 



3 
' ^^ 3 S c? 3 



1 






Ό• < *< ^ 



^ •;:; 


8 


<e -^ 


5^ 


^-^ 


1 


I 3 


3'~ 


|i 


;^ 


ig 


S. Ϊ. 


;i 


a a 


3 



^ 



-3 ^":<:vi ■^::-^~ 



^^ ^ 3•- >< 3' b 1 3 ^ 3" b ig I g ^S- 



«3 



TABLE OF IRREGULAR VERBS. 1 93 



^ '?r v^.'^T 



V -lu -iu "lu 'lu ,j; "ω ^^^ "jr- 'w -vu "lu 



g ο CJ ^ « 

1^ 3. i. s. b a _ 

•^ § b J5 S. 3. 

P- 3 -'^ ΰ « 

Εζ b b.b t^S ς§ 

-V -r b W I- i" 



^ 



Oh 



^ ^ « § a g; I 



n^ ^b ,b h Si ,i- *- ^ Q^ 



b ϊί 



'S'^tibj-.g-s.tio^ g?^o 2- 

.s b i Η ^ " t ^c§- e S ^ -§-.b ^ 

I »u; >*> 'W s-Vt; *W *W *w *W ^ *K* *W W "W 

'3 4 3 J , I 111 I .3 ί 

"? >? b ^-^ ϊί -I- 's -e-S-e- ?< 



r^ 





C 


^ 






I 


5^ 




3 ξ δ 




1 


§ 


ί: 3' 


1 


b 


:^ 3\3 
b b w 


3. 


3' 
ι- 


3' 

:§-, 

Ο- 
ι- 


,1s 


3" 

s 
-θ- 



3 1^ 



i 



3 






194 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

§ 89. To locate a verbal form at once is the 
most difficult thing a beginner has to learn. 
It is intended, therefore, that in the following 
pages the student shall have a special oppor- 
tunity for mastering a large part of this main 
difficulty. Of the most common irregular verbs 
there are here gathered into small space the 
forms that occur, and by a mastery of these 
pages a great deal will be done towards gaining 
a rapid and easy understanding of the Greek, 
read as Greek. 

After a thorough acquaintance with the 
paradigms and the principal parts of the ir- 
regular verbs, nothing may prove of greater 
profit than repeated drill on these forms. 

§ 90. άκονω,^ hear. 

ηκουον, άκονουσι, άκήκοα, άκούστ}, ακούσω, 
άκουσας, άκουων, άκουσομεθα, ακου€ΐ<;, άκηκόασι,, 
άκουσθτ], άκούβτβ, άκουσθήσβται^ ήκούσαμβν, 
άκούοντας, άκονσθβΐσι, άκούομβν, άκηκόατβ, 
άκουσητβ, άκουε, ακούσει, ακούσατε, ηκουσα, 
άκούοντος, ήκούσθη, άκηκοότα<;, άκούσεται, ακούει, 
άκουσάτω, άκούσωσι, άκούσονται, άκοΟσαι, άκου- 

1 The aim is to give αίί forms of these verbs, but such com- 
pleteness can hardly be expected. The various editors give 
often a different form for the same passage, and no concordance 
is, as yet, published which gives W. and H's. reading. 



IRREGULAR VERBS: STUDY OF FORMS. 1 95 

σάτωσαν, άκουσαντβς, ηκουσατε, άκούσβτβ, ηκουβ, 
άκουσεσθβ, άκούοντι, άκουσάντων, άκούοντβς^ 
άκονσουσι, άκούοντα, ηκονσας, άκούσασι, άκού- 
σασα, ηκουσβ, ακουσαντων, άκουαν, άκουέτω, 
ακουόντων, άκηκόαμβν. 

§ 91. άνίστημι, i-aisc up. 

ανέστη, άναστάς, άναστήσβται, avaarrj, άνίστα- 
ται, άναστώσι, αναστήσω, ανάστα, αναστηναι, 
ανεστησαν, αναστήσει, άναστήσα<;, άναστάντε<;, 
άνιστασθαι, άναστήσονται, άνάστηθι, ανεστησε, 
άνίστάμενο<ί, άναστάσα, άναστάν. 

§ 92. ανοίγω, open. 

άνοίζω, άνοιξον, ηνοίγθησαν, άνεω>γοτα, ηνοί'γη, 
avoiyei, άνοίγθωσί, άνοίξαντες, άνεωΎμενά,ς, 
άνεω')(θησαν, άνοίΎήσεταί, ηνοίζάς, άνεψ'γμενη, 
ανεω-χθη, ανεω^ε, άνοίξ-ρ, ανοί'γω, άνεω'γμενυ<{, 
ηνοίξε, άνεω^μενων, άνοίξωσι, άνέωξε, ήνοίχ^θΐ], 
ανεω'γμενον, ηνεωχ^θη, ανεω^μενη<;, ηνεφ-χθησαν, 
άνεφιγμενην, ηνοί^ησαν, ανεω^μενον<;, ανοίηων, 
ήνεωξε, άνοιχ^θήσεται., άνοΐξαι, ανεφ-χθνιναί. 

§ 93. άτΓοθνήσκω, die. 

άττεθανον, άττοθνήσκων, αττοθνήσκει, άττοθνή- 
σκωμεν, άττϋθν>]σκείν, άττοθανόντος, άττεθάνετε^ 



196 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

άτΓοθνήσκουσι, άττοθάνωμ^ν, άττοθανόντβς, άττοθα- 
velrai, αττέθνησκβν^ άττοθανόντι^ άττοθάντ)^ άττοθνή- 
σκοντες, άττοθανεΐν, άττοθνήσκομβν^ άττοθανόντα, 
άττίθανβ^ άτΓοθανών., άττοθανοΰνται, άττεθάνομβν, 
άττοθανβίσθβ. 



§ 94. άττόλλυμι, destroy, kill. 

άττώΧβσα, άττοΧλυμβνην., άττολεσαί, άττοΧηται^ 
άτΓολεσω, άττόλΧυμαι, άττοΧομενου, άττοΧωΧώς, 
άττώΧετο, άττοΧεΐται, αττωΧέσωσιν, άττοΧύσθαί, 
άτΓολεσας, άττο'λλυε, άττολω, άττοΧΧνμβθα, άττο- 
Χεστ}, άτΓοΧΧνμβνοι, cnroXeaei, άττοΧβσητε, άττο- 
Χβΐσθβ, άτΓοΧΧυμβνοις, άττώΧοντο, άττώΧεσβν, 
άτΓοΧοΰνταί, άττώΧΧυντο, αττολωλο'?, άττοΧωΧότα.) 
άτΓοΧΧνμένου^ άττόΧωνταί. 

§ 95. άτΓοστίλλω, send. 

άττέσταΧκα, άττοστεΧΧτ), αττοστειλας, άττοστα- 
XevTi, άτΓοστβΧώ, άττέστείΧα, άττεσταΧμένος, 
άττεστάΧην, άττοσταΧώσι^ αττοστβΧΧβιν, άττοστεί- 
Χαντες, άττέστειΧας, άττοστεΧΧει, άττοστείΧτ], 
άτΓοστείΧαντι, άττοστειΧον, αττοστεΧεΐ, αττο- 
στεΧΧω, άττεστάΧκαμεν, άττεστάΧη, άττέσταΧκας, 
άττεσταΧμενοί., άττεστάΧκασι, άττοστεΧΧομενα, 
άττεστάΧκατε, άττέσταΧμαι, άττεσταΧκε, άττεσταΧ- 
μένους, άττοστέΧΧουσι.) άττέστείΧαν^ άττοστεΐλαι. 



IRREGUL.4R VERBS : STUDY OF FORMS. 1 9 7 

§96. OJ^\.r\\^\., remit, forgive. 

άφ?;σ€<9, άφες, άφήκας, άφίζται, ηφί€, άφβων- 
ταί, άφήκα., αφεί'?, άφιέναι, άφί€τω, αφ?], 
άφίησίν, αφήσω, άφώμ€ν, άφβντ€<;, αφέθησαν, 
άφήκαμβν, αφβτβ, άφησα, άφήκατβ, άφήτ€, 
άφήσουσι, άφβθρ, άφίβμβν, άφήκαν, άφίβτε, 
άφβθήσεται, άφβΐναι, άφβΐς, άφήκες = -κας, 
άφίουσι, άφίομβν. 

§ 97. -βαίνω, go, come, άνα-, κατά-, Ιμ-, μ€τα-. 

βαίνων^ ββην, βήσβται, βαινβτω, βαίνβιν, βάς, 
βίβηκα, βαίνοντος, ββημβν, βαίνω, ββαινον, 
βάντων, βαινόντων, βρ, βάντι, βέβηκβ, ββαινε, 
βαίνουσι, βήναι, βαίνουσα, βήστ], βαίνβί, βαίνετε, 
βαίνουσαν, βαίνοντας, 'έβη, βάντα, βββηκότος, 
βάν, βαίνομεν, ββησαν, βββήκαμβν, βάντες, 
βήθι, βαΐνον, βάτω, βήτε, βαίνοντες, άναβα 
(for άνάβηθι). 

§ 98. βάλλω, east 

βαΧΧόντων, βαΧεΙν, βάλω, βάΧλει, εβέβΧητο, 
βεβλημένος, βάΧε, βεβΧηκότος, βάΧΧομεν, βαΧώ, 
εβαΧον, βάλλοντες, βεβληκε, βαΧΧόμενον, εβαΧ- 
Χον, βάΧΧεταί, βεβΧηται, βάλετε, βΧηθείστ], 
βαΧωσι, βάλΧουσι, βαλούσι, βληθ-)], βαλουσα, 
βεβΧημένον, βληθήσεταί, βάΧΧοντας, εβαΧε, 



igS ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

ΐβΧηθη^ βά\τ], βΧηθηναί, βάλΧουσαν, έβΧήθησαν, 
βάΧητβ, βββΧημβνην, βΧηθητι, βΧηθβν, βΧηθηστ], 
βΧητίον (a verbal, Luke 5 '■ Ζ^), βαΧΧόμβνα. 

§ 99. -γίνομαι, be, become. 

έ^γειπίθη, 'γβνόμενος, ^γινόμβνοι, yeyova, γενόμενοι, 
yivovrai, iyevovTO, ηίνωνται, ^ενωνται, γινομένη, 
eyeveaOe, ^ε^ενημένον., ^ζ^βνησθβ., 'yeyόvaμev^ 
yevoμevωv, eyeyovei, yevηraι, yivov, yevoμevη, 
yiveraL^ γεγοι^ώς, yevησθ€, ylveaOai, yeveaOai^ 
yeyovevai, yeyevrjadai, yevηθrjvaL, yevησόμ6V0Vy 
yevηθevτe^, ey€vήθησav, yιveσθω., yιvόμevov, 
yevόμevov, yevijOevTa^, iy€vόμηv, yevωμaι, γίΐ/ώ' 
μέθα, y€vώμeθa, y€vηθήτω, eyevov, iyivero, 
yLvόμ€va, yeyovaai, y€Voμ€IΌiς, yevηθητ€^ yevo- 
μ€νη<;, yevijaeraL, yivoμevωv, yeyova<;^ yevoμίvoυ^ 
yeyovoTi, yeyovav, yeyovare, iyevero, y€voμevηv, 
yeveσθω., yiveaOe., yeyovei, yevόμevaι, yeyovvia, 
yevijaeaOe, yev6μeva, yeyovore^., eyevήθητe^ yeyo- 
1^09, yeyove, yevηθevτωv, yevoiro (optative, mostly 
in the phrase μη yevoiro, may it not happen, 
God forbid). 

§ 100. -γινώσκω, know. 

yvωσθησ€τaι, yLvώσκωv, yvo), yivodaKerat, 
γίΐ^ώσ/ίω, yvoidi, yvwai., yLvwaKeiv, €yvωκa., yvco- 
σομαι, eyίvωσκov, yiva>aK6L, γνώτω, yvoiaovrai, 
eyvωκ€, yvωσθevτ€^, eyvu>Kare, yLvcoaKere, yLV(a- 



IRREGULAR VERBS: STUDY OF FORMS. 1 99 

σκητ6, ^ίνώσκομβν, Ύΐνώσκωμαι, €<γνων, β^νώσθη, 
yvovi;, yvu)T€, γνως, <γινώσκ€ί<;, ^νωσθήτω, ηνωναι^ 
έ'γ^ω, ηνάισ-τι., 'yvu>^ γνώσεταί, eytVw^/ce, iyvcuKeire, 
ε^νωσταί, yvovra^ ^ινωσκωσί^ 'γινώσκοντβς, 
ιγνοντες, <γίνωσκομ€νη, €<γνωσαν^ ^νώσβσθε, eyvw- 
καυ = -κασι, ε^νωκ4ναί. 

§ 101. δίδωμι, give. 

€8ωκαμ€ν, 8ί8ονς, 8ονς, δος•, δω, 8ι8όασί, εδ/δο- 
σαν,^ 8ωσονσι, βΒωκαν, 8ώσιν, δοθήσβται, ΒβΒωκβ, 
δεδώΛτεί, 8ι8όμ€νον, SeScuKeiaav, 8έ8ωκα, iSlSovv, 
εΒωκας, 8ί8οται, δώσω, SoOfj, διΒύναι, Sovvai, 
Βοθήναι, Βώτ] and 8οΐ, irregular forms for δω, δ^δω, 
Βί8ωμι, 8ωη = optative 8οίη, δώσείς, 86τω, εδ/δου, 
δ/δωσί, δώστ;, 8ί8οτ€, 8ι8όντί, €8ώκατ€, ΒβΒομβνον, 
8e8oTai, Βοθβίστ], ΒεΒομενην, €8ωκ6, δώσβί, 8ωμβν, 
€8ωκα, 8ί8όντα, εδο'^?/, Βοθείσης, 8όντος, 8ώσομβν., 
δωτε, 8οθ€Ϊσαι, 8ί8ον, δω?, Βοθβΐσαν, έΒόθησαν, 
8όντα, δεδωΛτας•, 8ι.8όντ€ς, δότε. 

§ 102. έρχομαι, co;ne, go. 

€\θω, €ρχ^ωμαί, €ρ)(^ομαι, βΧβύσομαι., βΧηΧυθα, 
ηΧθυν, €ρ)ι^όμ€νος, ηρχ^οντο, βΧθτ], έΧθών, βΧθονσα, 
έΧθετω, βρχ^ίσθω^ έΧεύσονται., ηΧθβτβ^ €Χ7']Χνθας, 
βρ-χ^ομεθα, ^pxjj, iXOetv, βρχ^ηται, βρχονται, εΧθωσι, 
εΧηΧνθβ, εΧθονση<ζ, ep -χου^ eXevaerai, βΧηΧύθβί, 
εΧθοντος., ηΧθβ. eXOovTC, βΧηΧνθβισαν, eXO όντων, 

1 Cf. similar form in έ'χω, § 104, latter part. 



200 ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

(ρχβσθαι, iXOov, βΧηΧυθυΐαν, βΧθόντα, βρχεσθβ, 
eX^oVre?, βΧθοΰσαι, 6Χη\υθότ€<ζ, ηΧθομβν, έΧηΧυ- 
θότα, ηΧθβς, βΧθόντα';, ΐΧθβ, ^ρχ^ομίντ), βρχ^βται, 
βρχ^ομζνης, ηρχ^ετο, βλ^ί^?? VPX^^^ (* commonly 
occurs for % in the 2 aor. ; as ηΧθαν, βΧθάτω. 
A few forms in -μβνος are omitted.) 

§ 103. ίν^ίσκίύ, find. 

ebpi']ar]<i,, βύρισκοντες., βΰρηκα, βυρίσκω, βνρηθη- 
σόμβθα, βυρβθηΐ', βύρεθβίς, ευρεθώ, εύρισκον, 
ευρίσκει, ^νρτ}, ε'υρείν, ευοον, εΰροίεν (opt.), 
εΰρίσκομεν, εύρων, εύρες, ευρέθη, ευρήσει<ί, ευρή- 
καμεν, εύρε, ευρέθησαν, ευράμενο<ί} είιρεθώσι, 
ευρισκόμεθα, εΰρωμεν, ευρεθήναι, ευρίσκετο, 
εΰρήσουσι, εύρητε, εύρόντες, εύρομεν, ευρήσει, 
ευρεθΐ), ευρηκέναι, ευρουσα, ενρωσι, εΰραμεν,^ 
ευροΰσαι, εΰρεθητε, εΰρήσομεν, ευρήσετε. 

§ 104. ^'χω> /lave. 

εγ^ε, έξεις, εγ^ει, εσχον, εσχηκα, σχώ, εγειν, 
^'Χ^' ^χο/Λβι^, είχε, εσχηκε, σχώμεν, είχον, έχτ], 
εχέτω, εχωμεν, εξει, έχομένω, εσχήκαμεν, εχο- 
μένάς, εσχες, εξετε, έχοντας, έχετε, εξουσι, 'έχοι 
and έχοιεν (opt.), εχητε, εχουσι, ^σχε, έχεις, 
ερχόμενα, έσχηκότας, εχωσι, έχων, έχουσα, έχον, 

1 Cf note, p. 189. 



IRREGULAR VERBS: STUDY OF FORMS. 20I 

βίχ^αν, εΓχοσαι^, both = είχοί', εϊ-χαμ^ν = βϊ^ζ^ομβρ, 
βσχηκότα (nearly all the forms of the pres. act. 
part, occur). 

§ 105. ϊστημι, cause to stand. 

[στώμ€ν, Ιστησι, στήσει, στάς, εστηκας, έστησε, 
εστως, σταθείς, στήσαι, στήστ]';, στήσαντε<ϊ, στή- 
σονται, στήσητε, στάντο<;, σταθήναι, εστάναι, 
στήναι, στήσετε, στήθι, εστήκαμεν, εστηκώς, 
εστωτος, σταθ ήσεται, έστησαν, έστηκότες, εστή- 
κασι, σταβέντα, είστήκει, εστάθην, εστώτα, 
σταθήσεσθε, είστήκεισαν, εστώτες, σταθ^ρτες, 
εστηκός, στάσα, σταθί), εστην, εστηκε, έστώτας, 
εστηκότων, εστη, στητέ, εστώτων, Ιστάθη, έστη- 
σαν, εστάθησαν, ε'ιστήκεσαν, στήση, Ιστάνομεν, 
εστό<;. W. and Η. give ΐστ- throughout the 
plupf. instead of e /στ-. 

§ 106. λαμβάνω, take, receive. 

εϊΧηφα, Χαμβάνων, εΧαβον, Χαβετω, Χάβω, 
Χαμβάντ}, Χαμβάνειν, Χαβεΐν, Χαμβάνω, εΧάμ- 
βανον, Χημψεται, Χάβετε, Χαμβάνεις, Χ7]μψόμεθα, 
Χάβωσι, Χαμβάνετε, Χαβών, εΧαβε'ζ, εϊΧηφας, 
Χαβοΰσαι, Χαμβάνονσι, έΧάβετε, εΙΧηφώς, Χαμ- 
βάνοντες, Χήμψεσθε, εΧαβε, εϊΧηφε, Χαβόντες, 
Χάβη, Χαμβάνει, Χήμψοί'ται, έΧάβομεν, Χαμβα- 
νόμενος, Χαβονσα, Χάβητε, Χαμβανόμενον, Χάβοί, 
(opt.), εϊΧηφες = -φα<;. 



202 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

§ 107. Ίτίνω, drink. 

[ττεττωΛτε], τηών, ττίνων, ίτίνω, ττί'ω, Trivet, 
ττίεται, eine, εττινον, ττίνβτβ, ττίβσαι, ττίητβ^ iriveiv, 
7Γΐ€Ϊν, 7Γ€Ϊν, 7rivovTe<;, 7Γί?7, ττίντ], ττίνονσι., ττίνωσι, 
ττίεσθβ, ετΓίον, Trie, ττίωμεν., ττινέτω, εττίομεν, ττίβτβ, 
Ίτωνσα, ττίωσιν. 

§ 107 α. ΊτίτΓτω, fa//. 

Ίτέτττωκαν., βττβσα, eireaov, Trearj, ττεσων, ττβσον, 
ττ/τΓτβί, 7Γ€σ€Ϊται, έ'ττεσε, ττεσόντας, ττβτττωκότα, 
€7Γ€σαν, ττεσετβ, ττβσβΐν, ττβσοϋνται, ττβσόντα, 
ΤΓίτΓτόντων, ττεστ^τε, ττβσόντβς, τΓβτΓτωκυΐαν, ire- 
σωσι, Ίτέτηωκβ'ζ (for -κα<;), βτητττβν. 

§ 108. τίθημι, put, p/ace. 

reOeiKa, θβίς, τιθβναι, τίθημι, θω, reOfj^ €τίθ€ΐ, 
θησω^ βθηκα, βθου, τβθβικώς, θβντβς, θβίναί., θήσ€ΐς, 
€τίθουν, τίθέασι, τίθησί, θτ), τίθβτω, θβμβνος, 
τεθήναι, βθβτο, θήσβί, τίθεται, θώμβν, θεσθβ, 
τιθβίς, 'έθηκαν, εθβσθε, βτβθην, τεθώσι, τιθίντ€ς, 
'έθηκας, WevTO, θέτε, €θηκ€, έτίθη, τβθείκατβ, 
έτίθησαν, τίθβιται. 

§ 109. ψαίνω, show, appear. 

έφάνη, φανήσβται, φανίϋσι, φαίνεται, φαίντ], 
φανώμεν, φαίνει, φανεΐται, φαίνων, φαίνεσθε, 



IRREGULAR VERBS : SYNTAX. 203 

εφάνησαν, φαίνομβνου, φαρτ}, φαινομένων, φαί- 
νοντί, φαίνονται, φαινομίνΐ], φανΡ]^, φαίνωσο. 



§ 110. φίρω, dear. 

ην€<γκα, βνβχ^θβίσης, ο'ίσβι^, iveyKare, ηνέχθη^ι 
φερ€Τ€, βφβρον, φβρώμεθα^ι φέρε, φβρουσαν, φερό- 
μενοι, φβρβιν, φερϊ], φερουσι., εφβρβ, -rjvejKaTe, 
φερομβνη<;, φερητε, φέρει, οϊσουσι, ενεχ^θεΐσαν, 
-φέρεται, εφερόμεθα, φερεσθαι, -ενε^κάς, -φερΐ]ς, 
ηνε<γκ€, εφεροντο, -φέρονται, ηνε^καν, φέροντες, 
φερομενην, ηνε'^κα<ί, ενεγ^θηναί, φίρον, φέρουσαι, 
4νβ<γκτ], -ενεχθ€ί<ς, -φερωσι, -ενβ'γκε. 



3. SYNTAX. 

§ 111. It is not the purpose of this introduc- 
tory work to deal largely with Greek syntax. 
No study, however, of the New Testament, in 
the Greek, can be prosecuted without at least a 
modicimi of knowledge of the Greek syntax. 
It is therefore within the scope of this little 
work to furnish that modicnin. 

It is believed that the examples and prin- 
ciples here set forth will prove of great value 
in assisting the beginner to keep his bearings 



204 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

amidst the various forms of construction which 
render the Greek so rich a language, and at the 
same time make it appear so difficult to the 
learner. 

The inductive study of syntax is valued by no 
one more highly than by the author, and I hope 
that the following principles may not be looked 
upon as rules that are to serve as pegs upon 
which the student is to hang his subjunctives, 
infinitives, genitives, and datives. The study 
of the syntax should begin with the examples 
and not with the principles, with the Greek text 
and not with a work on Greek syntax. 

The New Testament, written as it was by 
several different persons, cannot but present 
the peculiarities of style that belong to these 
authors. This variety of style often passes 
over into a different syntactical expression. 
Accordingly, what is a very common form of 
construction in the writings of Paul may not 
be found in the Gospels, and Luke may use 
expressions that do not occur elsewhere. 

The aim has been in the following examples 
to give those that are representative of the 
language as used by all the writers of the 
New Testament. 



syntax : subjunctive. 205 

The Moods in Independent Sentences. 

§ 112. The indicative in independent sen- 
tences is the natural one and needs nothing 
said about it here. 

Subjunctive. 

§ 113.' The first person plural of the subjunc- 
tive, either present or aorist, may be used to 
denote a command or cxhortatiojt. The nega- 
tive is μ,ή (l Cor. 15 : 32), φά'^ωμβν και ττίωμβν, 
Let lis eat and drink, i John 3 : 18, /*/; αγαττω- 
μ^ν λόγω, Let US not love in zuord. 

§ 114. The distinction between the present 
and aorist is that the present denotes what is 
continued, extended, or repeated, while the aorist 
denotes the fact simply without any continued 
or extended action. This distinction is generally 
true of the present and aorist in all moods 
except the indicative. The aorist subjunctive 
and imperative do not refer to past time, but 
to the present or future. The aorist infinitive 
may refer to past time. 

115. In questions of doubt or uncertainty the 
subjunctive is used in the first person, rarely in 
the second or third. Mark 12 : 14, ^ωμβν ή μη 
8ώμ€ΐ' ; shall zue give or shall we not give ? 



206 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

§ 116. The aorist subjunctive is used with 
the double negative ού μή, to express a strong 
negation. John 6:35, 6 βρχόμβνος ττρος e'/ie ού 
μη ireivaajf καΐ ο τηστζύων eh e'/xe ού μη Βίψή- 
σβι, he who comes ηηίο me shall not hunger, 
and he ivho believes on Die shall not thirst. 
Note that the future indicative is thus also 
used. 

§ 117. The aorist subjunctive may express a 
negative command. Matt, y -.6, μη Score το ayiov 
τοις κνσίν., μ7]86 βάXητe τους μαργαρίτας υμών €μ- 
ττροσθβν των -χοίρων, give not that which is holy 
to the dogs, nor throiv your pearls before stvine. 
Optative. 

§ 118. The optative is used to express a wish 
that refers to future time. Luke 20 : 16, μη 
ykvoLTo, may this not Jiappen. See § 71. 

In Dependent Sentences. 

Subjunctive. 

§ 119. Final clauses denoting piirpose are intro- 
duced by ϊνα or οττως and take the subjunctive, 
more rarely the indicative ; negative μή. Mark 
3 : 14, κα\ €7Γθίησεν δώδε/ία . . . ίνα ωσιν μeτ 
αυτού καΐ ίνα ΰττοστέΧΧτ] αυτούς Κ7]ρυσσείν, and 



SYNTAX : CONDITIONAL SENTENCES. 20 7 

he chose tivclve in order that they viight be with 
hifn, and that he might send them to preach. 
Acts 9 : l/j ό κύριος αττεσταλκέν μβ . . . όπως 
άναβΧβψ'Τ]^ καΐ 7Γ\ησθί)ς πνεύματος ayiov, the 
Lord has sent me that yoii might look up and be 
filled ivith the holy spirit. 

§ 120. Object clauses after verbs of exhorting, 
commanding, and entreating, take the subjunc- 
tive with ϊνα, more rarely ό'ττω? ; negative μη. 
Matt. 14 : 36, παρεκάΧουν αυτόν 'ίνα μόνον 
αψωνταί του κρασπέδου του Ιματίου αυτού, they 
entreated him that they might but touch the hem 
of his garment. Mark 13 : 18, προσ^ύγεσθε δε 
ίνα μη Ύενηταί γειμωνος, and pray ye that it 
happen not in the luinter. 

Conditional Sentences. 

§ 121. A condition stated simply without any- 
thing being impHed as to fulfilment has in 
Greek, as in English, the simple present, future, 
or past (aorist) indicative in the condition, with 
the same tense in the conclusion. 

Matt. 4:6, εΐ νιος εΐ του θεού, βαΚ,ε σεαυτον 
κάτω, if thou, art the Son of God, cast thyself 
down. Matt. 26 : 33, el πάντες σκαδαΧισθήσον- 
ται εν σοι, ejco ουδέποτε σκανδαΧισθησομαι, if 
all men shall be offended in thee, I never shall be 



2o8 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

offended. 2 Cor. 5 • l6> ^^' i^^^^ Ιηνωκαμεν κατά 
σάρκα άριστον, aWa νυν ούκβτι ιγινώσκομβν, and 
if we have known Christ according to the flesh, 
yet noiv tve knoiu him no longer. 

§ 122. Conditions CoJitrary to Fact. — When av 
is added to the conclusion where el appears in 
the condition, a non-fulfilment is implied. The 
same tense of the indicative is used in both 
parts. 

§ 123. The imperfect denotes present time, 
and the aorist or pluperfect denotes past time. 

Imperfect : John 5 : 46, d ηαρ βττίστειίετε 
Μωυσβί, βτηστβύβτβ αν ^μοί, for if you ivere now 
believing in Moses, yoii would now be believing 
in me. Implying that they are not believing in 
Moses. 

Aorist or pluperfect : i Cor. 2 : 8, el ηαρ 
β'γνωσαν, ουκ αν τον κύριον της Βόξης βστανρω- 
σαν, for if they had knozun it they ivonld not 
have crucified the Lord of Glory, i John 2 : 19, 
et <^ap ef ημών ήσαν., μβμβνηκβισαν αν μβθ^ ημών, 
for if they had been of lis, they would have re- 
mained zvitJi us. 

§ 124. Future Conditions. — Clauses that refer 
to future time are introduced by eaV, which is 
followed by the subjunctive {rarely the indica- 



SYNTAX : RELATIVE CLAUSES. 2O9 

tive). In the conclusion the future indicative 
occurs or the present with future sense. 

Matt. 9:21, iav μόνον αψωμαι του Ιματίου 
αυτού σωθήσομαι, If Ι sJiall but touch his gar- 
ment, I shall be saved. John 15 : 10, iav τας 
ivTo\a<; μου τηρήσητβ, μβνβίτβ ev Tjj άγατττ; μου, 
if ye shall keep my commandjnents, ye shall re- 
main in my love. 

§ 125. The negative in the condition is 
usually μη, in the conclusion always oh. 

Relatfve Clauses. 

§ 126. Clauses introduced by relative words 
as 09, luJio, and όττου, where, follow the same 
principles as conditional clauses when referring 
to present, past, or future time. The relative 
word stands as the conjunction in the room of 
el. Where an eaf-construction is implied, the 
relative word usually takes the place of the el 
and the dv remains, as 09 av. More rarely 09 
eav is found. 

Luke 8:18, b? av yap έ'χ?;, SoθήσeτaL• αύτω, 
zvhoever has, to him shall it be given. Mark 
14 : 9, οτΓου iav κηρυχ^θη το eiiayyeXiov, ... δ 
e7Γ0Lησev αΰτη ΧαΧηθήσβται, zuherever the Gospel 
shall be preached, that luhich she has done will 
be told. 



210 essentials of new testament greek. 

Temporal Clauses. 

§ 127. Temporal Clauses introduced by οτ^^ 
ivJien, έως, until, are followed by the same con- 
struction as relative conjunctions, § 126; ore av 
is always written orav. Mark 6 : lO, Ικά μβνβτβ 
€ως αν βξέΧθητε εκείθεν, abide there Jintil you 
go out tJience. Matt. 2I :4ο, orav ovv εΧθτ) 6 
κύριος του άμττεΧωνος, τι ττοιησει ; wJicn there- 
fore the lord of the viiieyard cometJi, what will 
he do ? 

§ 128. More rarely e'fo? appears without av. 
Luke 22 : 34, ου φωνήσει σήμερον άΧεκτωρ εως 
τρις με άτταρνηστ) εΙΒεναι, the cock shall not 
croiv to-day until you deny three tiifies that you 
knoiu me. 

Infinitive. 

§ 129. The infinitive is used to complete the 
meaning of such verbs as θεΧειν, zuish; Βύνασθαι, 
able ; εΧττίζειν, hope; ζητεΐν, seek. This con- 
struction is the same as in English. If this 
infinitive has a subject different from that of 
the principal verb, this subject must be in 
the acciisative. Hebr. 6 : 11, ετηθυμοΰμεν 8ε 
εκαστον υμών την αύτην ενΒείκνυσθαί σττουδ?/!/, 
we moreover desire each one of you to exhibit 
the sanie earnestness. 2 Cor. 11 : 16, μή τις με 



SYNTAX : INFINITIVE. 211 

Βό^τ) άφρονα elvai, let no one tJiink me. ίο be 
foolish {that I am foolish). 

§ 130. When the subject of the infinitive is 
tJie same as that of the principal verb, this 
subject is not commonly expressed, and all 
attributes are in the nominative case. Rom. 
I : 22, φάσκοντες elvai σοφοί βμωράνθησαν, they 
zuere made foolish by declaring themselves to 
be wise. 

§ 131. Words of saying and in general ex- 
pressions of thought may be followed by the 
infinitive with the cases as above. See last 
example in § 129 and in § 128. 

§ 132. The infinitive may be used as a sub- 
stantive, and in this construction may take the 
article in any case. This substantive phrase 
(while keeping its verbal force) is governed as a 
noun, and often takes a preposition. 

I Cor. 14 : 39, ro \a\eiv μη κωΧύβτβ γλώσσαίς, 
forbid not the speaking with tongues. Acts 
14:9, βχβί τΓΐ'στίν τον σωθήναί, he has faith 
that he will be healed, Ut. faith of being healed. 
John I : 48, ττρο του σε ΦίΧοττττον φωνήσαί, before 
Philip called you. 

§ 133. The infinitive is frequent after i'yevero, 
it came to pass, where the infinitive, with or 



2 12 ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

without a subject accusative, is the subject of 
the ijevero. Luke 6 : i, eyeveTo δε iv σαββάτω 
ΒιατΓορξύεσθαί αυτόν, it came to pass as he 
journeyed on the Sabbath. Luke 3:21, iyepero 
8e ev τω βατττισθήναί ατταντα τον Xabv . . . άνεω- 
-χθηναι, τον ουρανον καί καταβήναι το ττνβνμα το 
ayiov eV αυτόν, and zvJien all the people had 
been baptized {ev τω βατττισθήναί) it happened 
that the heavens tuere opened, and that the Holy 
Spirit descended 7ipon him. 

§ 134. ώστε, so that (to be distinguished from 
ώστε as an introductory word, and so, therefore), 
takes the infinitive (indicative twice), negative 
μή. Mark 9 : 26, eyeveTO ώσβΐ νβκρος ώστε τού<ί 
τΓοΧλούς \eyeiv ότι άττ^θανεν, he became as one 
dead, so that the most said that he was dead. 

§ 135. The infinitive is common after ιτρίν or 
ττρίν η, before. Matt. 26 : 34, ττρΧν άΧάκτορα 
φωνήσαι, before the cock croivs. Acts 7 : 2, ττρίν 
η κατοικήσαί αύτον ev ^αρράν, before Jie dwelt in 
Charran. 

Participle. 

§ 136. Verbs of hcaj'ijig, seeing, knowing, and 
perceiving, may be followed by the participle. 
This construction is a form of indirect discourse 



SYNTAX: NEGATIVES. 213 

and is rendered by such a clause in English. 
Acts 7:12, άκουσας δε ^ϊακωβ οντά σιτία βίς 
A'LyuTTTov, and Jacob having Jicard that there 
was corn in Egypt. Luke 8 : 46, εγώ γαρ β^νων 
Βνναμίν έξεΧηΧυθνΐαν αττ' έμοΰ, for Ι knoiu that 
power has gone ont from Die. i John 4 : 2, 
Ίταν 7Γν€νμα ο όμόΧο'^βί ^Ιησονν Ι^ριστον iv σαρκΐ 
βΧηΧυθότα, every spirit zuhich confesses that Jesus 
CJirist canie in the flesh. For some other ex- 
amples of the participle see 190-193. 

Negatives. 

§ 137. μή is the usual negative in the condi- 
tional, relative, and temporal clauses, ov the 
negative of the main clause. 

§ 138. μη is the negative of the imperative, 
μη θαυμάζετε, marvel not. 

§ 139. μιί] is used in asking questions where a 
negative reply is expected. John 21:5, τταιΒία, 
μή Tt ττροσφά'γοον e^ere ; /itt/e chi/dren, have ye 
aught to eat ? 

§ 140. ού is used in questions where an 
affirmative answer is expected. Luke 17 : 17, 
ού-χ^ οι SeKu βκαθαρίσθησαν ; were the ten not 
purified f 



214 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESIAMENT GREEK. 

§ 141. The double negative ου μή is used to 
express a strong negation. See § 116. Matt. 
24 : 34, ου μη TrapeXOr) ν yevea αϋτη έως αν ττάντα 
ταύτα ykvy]Tai. This generation shall not pass 
away until all these tilings come to pass. 

§ 142. When a strong emphasis is desired 
several negatives may occur in a sentence, 
provided the simple negative as ου or μη be 
followed by the compounds, as οϋδβ, ούΒβν, or 
μηΒβ, μη^εν. I John I : 5, σκοτία ουκ βστιν ev 
αύτω ούΒβμία, no darkness is in him at all. 
Mark i : 44, ο pa μηδβνΐ μηΒβν €Ϊ7Γ7]ς, see to it, 
speak ne er a word to any one. But where the 
negatives are simple, the effect is as in English. 

§ 143. In general, ου is the negative of state- 
ment or fact ; while /λ>; is the negative of con- 
ception, possibility, or contingency. 

Uses of the Cases in Greek. • 

§ 144. It is supposed that the student is 
already acquainted with the simpler uses of the 
cases that have come up in the course of the 
lessons. 

Genitive. 

§ 145. Time tuithin luJiich is put in the geni- 
tive. Matt. 28 : 13, νυκτο<ζ βΧθόντβς €κ\€ψαν 
αυτόν, they came in the night aiid stole Jmn. 



syntax: uses of the cases. 215 

§ 146. The agent after a passive verb, usually 
a vohintaiy agent, is expressed by ύττο and the 
genitive. Mark i : 9, ζβατττίσθη ΰττο Ίωάνον, 
he was baptised by JoJui. Matt, ii : 7, καλαμον 
υττο άνεμου σαΧευόμενον, a I'eed shaken by the 
zvind. 

§ 147. The genitive may be used as a pred- 
icate after ^Ιμί. i Cor. i : 12, β'γώ μς,ν εΙμι 
Παύλοι; , . . εγώ δε άριστον, Ι αιη of Paul . . . 
and I am of Christ. 

§ 148. Verbs of touching, begging, hearing, 
tasting, and the like, are usually followed by the 
genitive. Luke 5:13, ηψατο αντοΰ λεγωι/, he 
tojicJied him, saying. Mark 8 : 23, καΙ ίπύλαβό- 
μ€νος τής 'χβιρο'ί του τνφΧού, and he took hold of 
his hand. Luke 5:12, βΖβηθη αυτού Χέ^ων, he 
begged Jiim, saying. Matt. 17 : 5, d/coi^ere αύτοΟ, 
hear ye him. John 8 : 52, ού μη ^εύσβταί θανάτου 
etf τον αιώνα, he shall not taste death forever. 

§ 149. Words denoting fulness, deficiency, 
plenty, and wa^it, take the genitive. John 
1:15, ιτληρης 'χάριτος καΐ άΧηθείας., full of grace 
and truth. Luke 1:53, ττβινώντας ενεττΧησεν 
άηαθών, he filled the hungry zvith good [things). 
James l : 5, ^l δε τις υμών Χείττβται σοφίας, and 
if any of you is lacking in zvisdom. 



2l6 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

§ 150. The genitive follows the comparative 
degree of the adjective. Mark 12:31, μβίξων 
τούτων αΧλη εντοΧη ουκ εστίν, ηο otlie}' com- 
mandmcnt is greater than -these. 

§ 151. The genitive follows verbs of acciising, 
condernning, and the like. Acts 19 : 40, κοίΧ 
'yap κινΒυνβύομβν iyKaXeiaOat στάσεως, for zve 
are in danger of being called to account for the 
disturbance. Mark 15 : 3, και κατηγορούν αντου 
οι αρχιερείς ττολλα, and the high priests accused 
him of man}' things. 

§ 152. The genitive follows most adverbs, as : 
■χωρίς, μέχρι, εως, οττίσω, εμττροσθεν, εγγύς. 
John Ι : 1 5) ο οττίσω μου ερχόμενος εμττροσθεν 
μου ηεηονεν οτι ττρωτός μου ην, he who comes 
after me was before me, because lie was prior 
to me. 

Dative. 

§ 153. The dative is used after words signi- 
fying likeness, agreement, or their opposites. 
John 8 : 55, εσομαι όμοιος ύμίν ψεύστης, I shall 
be like you, a liar. 

§ 154. The dative follows verbs of approach- 
ing, joining, following. Luke 15:25, κα\ ως 
ερχόμενος ηγγισεν τη οικία, and as he %uent he 



SYNTAX : USES OF THE CASES. 2 1 7 

drciv near to the house. Mark 2 : 14, ακο\οΰθ&υ 
μοι, folUnv Die. 

§ 155. 'ΤΓίστ€νω, believe, and ιτροσκυνίω, wor- 
ship, are commonly followed by the dative. 
Matt. 21 : 12, ουκ €Ίηστβΰσατ& αύτω, fe believed 
huti not. John 9 : 381 k^cu ΤΓροσβκύνησβν αύτω, 
and he zvorshipped him. 

§ 156. The dative is used after et/it and <ylvo- 
μαί to denote the possessor. Acts 8:21, ουκ 
eartv σοι μβρίς, no part is to yo2t {you have no 
part). 

§ 157. Cause, means, manner, degree, and 
instrument are put in the dative ; the latter 
usually with a preposition. Rom. 1 1 : 20, τ^ 
άΐΓίστία έ^εκΧάσθησαν, because of their ujdielief 
they were brokeji off. Rom. 8 : 24, rrj yap ΙΧττίΒι 
βσώθημβν, for we are saved by hope. Mark 
10 : 48, τΓοΧλω μάΧλον βκραζβν, he cried inueh 
more, lit. more by inuch. Luke 22 : 49, Ku^te, 
€L• 7Γατάξομ€ν ev μαχαίρι] ; Lord, ivhether shall zue 
strike with the szvord ? 

§ 158. Time zuhen and place zuhere are in the 
dative ; more commonly with kv. Luke 12 : 20, 
ταύτΎ) rfi ννκτΐ την ψνχήν σου αΐτουσίν αττο σου, 
this night they ask from thee thy soul. 



21 8 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

Accusative. 

§ 159. Verbs of motion tozvards require the 
accusative case. The motion may be objective or 
subjective, still the same case occurs, and with 
a preposition, as et?, τταρά, or ττρός. Luke i : 56, 
vTrearpe'^ev et? τον οίκον, Jie tiirncd into the 
house. Mark 5 : 23, ττίτττει ττρος τους ττο'δας 
αυτού, he falls at his feet. John 1:1,0 \oyo<i ην 
ττρος τον θβόν, the Word zvas with' God. 

§ 160. Extent of time and space is put in the 
accusative. John 7 : 33, eVi γ^ρύνον μικρόν μεθ' 
υμών βΐμί, yet a little while I am with you. 
John 6:19, €Χ7]\ακότ€<; ovv ως σταΒίους βϊκοσι 
7Γ€ντ€, zvhen then they had gone about twenty-five 
fnrlongs. 

§ 161. Tivo accusatives may follow verbs of 
saying or asking something of some one ; also 
doing something to some one. Matt. 7 : 9, 
ov αιτήσει 6 νιος αυτοί) άρτον, whom shall his 
son ask for bread. Matt. 4 : 19, ττοιήσω υμάς 
αΚεεΙς ανθρώπων, I shall make you fishers of 
men. 

§ 162. The infinitive has the subject in the 
accusative. See δ 131. 



SYNTAX : PREPOSITIONS. 



219 



§163. 



Prepositions. 



Genitive only. - 



Dative only. 



αντί, instead of. 
άιτό, fro)n. 
€K, out of. 
ιτρό, before. 



σ-ύν, until. 
Accusative only. els, into, to. 



Genitive 
and 

Acciis. 



διά, through. Gen., Dat. 
κατά down. and 

μ£τά, with, after. Accns. 
irepi, about. 
vTzip, above. 
νττό, under. 



Γ liri, upon, at. to. 
- -rra.po..froj/i, by, to. 
[ irpos, /<', at. 



§ 164. αντί, instead of , oSovra άντΙ τον οΒόντος, 
a tootJi for a tooth. 

άττό denotes separation, arro της ΤαΧοΧαίας, 
from Galilee ; άττο ττάσης αμαρτίας, from every 
sin. Source, μάθβτβ άττ έμον, learn of vie. 

διά, genitive, through, ^Ισ^ρ'χρμζνος 8ia της 
θύρας, entering through the door. Means, ό 
κόσμος δί' αυτοί) eyeveTO, the zaorld zvas made 
tJirongJi him. Accusative, on account of, for 
THE SAKE of, hia TO ονομά μου., for 7ny name's 
sake ; 8ta τούτο, on account of this. 

cls denotes motion toward, either real or 



2 20 ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

implied, ανέβη eh το ορός, Jie zvcnf up into the 
vioiititain. Time, et<f αιώνα, for everlasting. 

Used metaphorically to denote rest or a 
CONDITION, ών eh τον κόΧτΓον τον ττατρός Jie 
τυ/ιο is in the bosom of the Father. 

€K denotes motion out of, where there has 
been a close union, φωνή iic των ουρανών., a voice 
out of heaven. Time, ck τούτου., after this {time). 
Place, eV Ββξιών, on the rigJit hand. 

€V, IN, eV TTf a'yopa., in the market-place ; BeSo- 
μίνον iv άνθρώττοις, given among men (so often 
with plural nouns). Instrument, ττατάξομβν 
iv T7} μαχαίρϊ] ; shall we strike zvith the sivordf 

έττί, with the genitive, upon, with verbs of 
RESTING, GOING, STANDING, eVl T^9 γ/;•?, Upon the 
earth. Time, eVl Κλαυδίου, in the time of 
Claudius. 

With the dative, where, iirl ττρυμντ}, at the 
stern ; errl ττίνακι, Jipon a charger. 

Accusative, motion toward, τιθέασιν eVl την 
Χυχνίαν, they put it upon a lajnpstand, συνη-χθη 
οχΧος τΓοΧύς έ-π αυτόν, α great multitude zuas 
gathered to him. 

κατά, motion from above downward. Geni- 
tive, ώρμησε κατά του κρημνού, they rushed doivn 
the steep place. An opinion or judgment against 
any one, el tl e^eTe κατά τίΐ^ο?, if you have any- 
thing against any one. 



SYNTAX : PRErOSITIONS. 



Accusative^ along, through, according to, 
Kara τάς χ^ώρας^ throilgJioiit tJiese places ; κατά 
τον νόμον, according to the ίαιυ. 

μ€τά, association with. Genitive, ό ττατηρ 
μ€τ βμοΰ βστιν, tJie FatJier is zvitJi me. 

Accusative, After, denoting succession, /xera 
δε ravra βίττεν, and after this he said. 

Ίταρά, genitive, from the side of. From, 
always of a person, Χαμβάνομ^ν τταρ αύτου, zve 
receive from him. 

Dative, by the side of. Something is or 
is done by some one or something, παρ αύτψ 
έμειναν, they remained tuith him. 

Accusative, το, contrary to, ^X^e τταρα την 
θάλασσαν, he zvcnt to the sea ; τταρα την 8ι8άχ^ην, 
contrary to the teaching. 

TTCpi, genitive, about, concerning, η^ηραιτται 
Trepl avTov, it is zvritten concerning him. 

Accusative, about, around, irepX 8e βν^εκάτην, 
and about the eleventh hour; ττερί Ύνρον, aronnd 
Tyre. 

irpd, BEFORE, Ίτρο των θυρών, before the doors ; 
ττρο καταβολής κόσμου, before the foundation of 
the world. 

irpos, accusative, after verbs of motion, άττηΧθε 
ττρος αύτού<}, he departed to tJiem. Where the 
motion is not objective, εμάγοντο οΰν ττρος άΧΧη- 
XoL'9j (ind indeed they contended ivith one another. 



222 ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 

Proximity, ό Xoyo'i ην ττρος τον ©eoV, t/ie ivord 
zvas zviih God. Dative., near, ττρο? τω ope<, by 
the mountain. Genitive but once, Acts 27 : 34, 
for the advantage of. 

συν, WITH, έττορβύβτο συν αντοΐς, he proceeded 
with them. 

icrrep, genitive., for sake of, ψυχίίν μου ύττψ 
σου θήσω, Ι shall lay doiun my life for yon. 

Accusative, above, ουδέ ho\)\o•^ ύττερ τον κύριον, 
nor is the servant above his fnaster. 

ύτΓΟ, genitive., always with the passive voice 
to denote the agent, έβατττίσθη ΰττο Ίωάνου., he 
zvas baptized by Jo Jin. 

Accusative, under, ΰττο την συκην elSov σε, / 
sa7v yon underneath the fig tree. 

The student should by no means consider this 
short treatment of the prepositions exhaustive. 
Many of them occur more than 1000 times in 
the New Testament, and often with varying sig- 
nificance. Only the most fundamental uses have 
here been indicated. 

In all cases constant reference should be made 
to the lexicon. 



INDEXES. 



GREEK INDEX. 



Ν. Β. — All references are made to pages. Occasionally more particular 
reference is made in parenthesis. 



A, in contraction, 139 ; α 

changed to rj, 15; to a, 48 

(note), 
άγα^ο';, comparison, 153. 
ά7γ6λλω, class of verbs, 186. 
ay ω, 2 aor., 118 (v. 13). 
ot, short in endings, 23 (top). 
αίρω, 1 86. 
ακούω, 2 perf.,67 (top) and 112 

(v. I). 
άληθήί, decl., 151. 
&v, in apodoses, 208 ; in temp. 

clauses, 210; in rel. clauses, 

209. 
cLvqp, decl., 45. 
άνοί'^ω, forms in N. T., 195. 
άτΓΟ, w. gen., 219. 
άττόΧλυμι, forms in N. T., 196. 
αποστέλλω, forms in N. T. , 

196. 
άπτομαι, w. gen., 215. 
axiTos, pers. pron., 30 (top); 

intensive pron., 29 (bottom); 

position and meaning with 

art., 29, 30, 147. 
ούτοΟ for eavTov, 80. 



άφίτημι, conjugation, 179; prin. 

parts, 189; forms in N. T., 

197. 
-οω, contract form in, 168. 

B, classification among the 

mutes, 138 (2); euph. 

changes before σ, 49. 
βαίνω, prin. parts, 190; forms 

in N. T., 197. 
βάλλω, prin. parts, 190; forms 

in N. T., 197. 
βασίλεύ3, decl., 150. 

Γ, classification among the 

mutes, 138 (2); euph. 

changes before σ, 49; before 

μ, 117 (top). 
-γαστηρ, decl., 151. 
•γεύομαι, \v. gen., 215. 
Ύίνομαι, 8g (bottom) ; prin. 

parts, 190; forms in N. T., 

198. 
Ύΐνώσκω, 8g (bottom) ; prin. 

parts, 190; forms in N. T., 

198. 



225 



220 



ESSENTIALS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



Ύράφω, 2 aor. pass, έ-^ράφην, 
69 (bottom). 

Δ, classification among the 
mutes, 138; dropped before 
σ, 49; euph. changes before 
a liquid, 69 (mid.); inserted 
in άνήρ, 45 (bottom). 

δ^, 30. 

Set, impers., 90. 

δέομαι, w. gen., 215 (mid.). 

δηλόω, conjug. of contract 
forms, 168. 

δίά, w. gen. and ace, 219. 

δίδωμι, conjug. of, 1 73; verbs 
in -μι, 87, 88; redupl., 89 
(bottom) ; aor. in κα, 88 
(note) ; prin. parts, 190; 
forms in N. T., 199. 

E, in contraction, 138; in aug. , 
15; lengthened to η, 48; in 
aor. of liquid stems, 79; 2 
aor. pass., 69 (bottom) ; 
fut. liquid stems, 78; -εω, 
conjug. of φί\4ω, 1 68; vari- 
able vowel, 4, 13 (top), 15 
(mid.), 48 (top) ; contraction 
of eai, 13. 

-eat, for -etrat, 13. 

iav, w. subj., 39, 208, 209. 

έαυτοΰ, decl., 154. 

iyeipw, fut. of, 78. 

iy^, decl., 29, 153. 

ei for ee in aug., 16 (note). See 
under e. 



ei, ?'/, 207, 208. 

ei5oi', 57 (bottom). 

et/it, conjug., 178; w. dat. of 

poss., 217; enclitic, 31. 
eijui, go, in composition only, 

_ 179• 

elwov, forms of, 58 (top), 
et's, w. ace, 219. 
eis, decl., 151 ; compound, 83. 
e/c or e|, w. gen., 220. 
eKeivos, 27. 
έλάσσων, 147 (λ). 
e\7r/s, decl., 51, 148. 
έμαυτοΰ, decl., 154. 
έμπροσθεν, vv. gen., 2l6 (mid.). 
ev, w. dat., 220. 
iwl, w. gen., dat., and ace, 

220. 
ερχομα,ί,ρήη. parts, 1 91; forms 

in N. T., 199. 
ευρίσκω, prin. parts, 191; class, 

187; forms in N. T., 200. 
έ'χω, prin. parts, 190; forms in 

N. T., 200. 
-εω3, -εων, in the gen. of the 3d 

decl., 44, 45. 
?ws, construction of, 2IO. 

Z, double consonant, 12 (λ); 
verb stems in -ξ'ω, i86 (2). 

H, see under e. 
-r;s, adjs. in, 84, 85. 

Θ, classification among the 
mutes, 138. 



GREEK INDEX. 



227 



β€, in aor. pass., 68. 

θνήσκω {θαν), only w. prep. 
άτΓο-; prin. parts, 191; class 
of verbs, 187 (bottom). 

θρίξ, decl., 151. 

θνγάτ-ηρ, decl., 15 1 (top). 

I, close vowel, 138 (3); added 

to pron. and adv., 52 (note) ; 

in redupl., 89; sign of the 

opt, 181. 
ΐ-ημί, see άφίημι. 
-Lv, in ace. sing., 51 (bottom). 
'ίνα, conj., construction w. final 

clauses, 206; vv. object 

clauses, 207. 
'ίστημι, redupl., 89; inflection 

of forms, 173; prin. parts, 

191; forms in N. T., 201. 
•ίων, -iffTos, comp. and superl., 

86. 

K, for classification of mutes, 
138; before <τ, 49; before μ, 
117 (top). 

-κα, in verbs, 88 (note). 

KUKOs compared, 153. 

KoXos compared, 153. 

κατά, w. gen. and ace, 220. 

κΚαίω, prin. parts, 191. 

A, 138; verbs in -λλω, i86. 
λαμβάνω, class of verbs, 187; 

prin. parts, 192. 
λείπω, 2 aor. of, 165. 
λύω, conjug., 160. 



M, 138. 

μέ-^αί, decl., 152; compared, 

153• 

μετά, -w. gen. and ace, 221. 

μή, neg. in cond., rel., final, 
temp, clauses, 213; in wishes, 
206; w. imp., 213; w. dubi- 
tative subj., 205 (bottom); 
double neg. οΰ μή, 2θ6 (top) ; 
in asking questions, 213. 

μήτηρ, decl., I5I (top). 

N, 138; in 5th class of verbs, 

187. 
V, case ending, 51 (bottom). 
-vat, infin., 76, 183. 
-νσι, in 3d per. plur., 4. 

S, double consonant, 17 (top). 

O, in contraction, 139; length- 
ened to ω,48; to 011,52(132); 
connect, vowel, see under e. 

0, ή, TO, art. decl., 146; pro- 
clitics, 21 (note). 

01, diphthong, 8, ό. 
οίδα, conjugation, 180. 
δμνυμι (ομ-, ομο-), class of verljs, 

187. 

όνομα, decl,, 42. 

οπίσω, w. gen., 86 (note). 

ό'ττω;, in obj. clauses w. subjv., 
207. 

όράω, prin. parts, 192; aug- 
ment, 112 (v. l). 

8i, rel. pron., 33 (bottom). 



228 



ESSENTULS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



da-Tis, forms in N. T., 154. 

01), ουκ, οΰχ, 28 (note 2) ; see 
under μή. 

οΰδείϊ, decl., 83. 

oCs, ear, decl., 151. 

ovTos, decl., 147; use and mean- 
ing of, 26, 27. 

-οω, verbs in, 168. 

n, for classification, 138; be- 
fore σ, 49; before Oe in aor. 
pass., 69. 

παρά, w. gen., dat., ace, 221. 

iras, 64. 

πατήρ, decl., 45. 

περί, w. gen. and ace, 221. 

πίί'ω, class of verbs, 187; prin. 
parts, 192; forms in N. T., 
202. 

πιστΐύω, foil, by dat., 217 (top). 

πόλΐί, decl., 44. 

ΤΓολύί, decl., 152; compar. , 

153• 
πούί, 51 (top); decl., 151 (top). 
πρίν, w. infin., 212. 
Trpos, vv. gen., dat., and ace, 

221. 
πρ6σθΐν, w. gen., 216 (middle). 
TrpQros, w. gen., 216 (middle). 

Ρ at beginning of a word, 140. 

Σ, forms of, 3 (note) ; classifi- 
cation, 138 ; euph. changes 
w. mutes. 49 ; Unguals change 
to <r before a lingual, 69; 



dropped in nouns, 53 (bot- 
tom); in εσαι,.εσο, and ασο, 
13 («). 17 («). and 56 (a); 
movable σ, 141 (top). 

-σαι and -σο, see under σ. 

-σαν, 3d per. plur., 15 (top), 
88. 

σεαυτοΰ, decl., 154. 

στέλλω, prin. parts, 193. 

σύ, decl., 153. 

T, for classification, 138; euph. 

changes with other Unguals, 

69; dropped before σ, 49. 
-τη?, masc. nouns in, 22, 23. 
τίθημι, see 89 and 90. 
t/s, decl., 154; see 75. 
tIs, decl., 154; see 75. 
Tjoeis, decl., 153. 
τν/χάνω (τυχ) class of verbs. 

187 (mid.); prin. parts, 

193• 

Y, close vowel, 138 (3). 
'ύδΐύρ, decl., 151 (top). 
VL, diphthong, 10 (c), 
vios, decl., 145. 
ύτΓΟ, w. gen. and ace, 222. 

Φ, classification, 138 ; euph. 

changes, 49, 69 (178). 
φαίνω, conjug., 166 ; class of 

verbs, 186; prin. parts, 193; 

forms in N. T., 202. 
φίρίο, i88 (mid.); prin. parts, 

193• 



GREEK INDEX. 



229 



X, see reference under φ. 
Xelp, decl., 151 (top). 
χειρών, see KaKos. 

Ψ, double consonant, 19 (a) 
and 138. 



il, see under 0. 
φ, augm. for 01, 15 (36). 
ων, part, of ειμί, ηο, 
-ω$, in adverbs, 86. 
ώστε, w. inf. and ind., 212, 80 
(note l). 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



See remark, page 225. 



Absolute gen., 74 (note 3). 
Abstract nouns, w. art., 112 

(v. I, latter part). 
Accent, nominal, 24; verbal, 2; 

gen. and dat. of oxy tones, 20; 

monosyllables of 3d decl., 42; 

in contr. syllables, 78 (top) ; 

in enclitics, 29 (note). 
Accusative case, 144; uses of, 

218. 
Accusing, verbs of, foil, by gen., 

216. 
Active voice, 157. 
Acute, see under Accent. 
Adjectives, compar. of, 85; 

agree w. nouns, 1 1 ; attrib. 

and pred., position of, 27 (64) . 
Adverbs, formation of, 86 ; foil. 

by gen. case, 216. 
Agent, see under Genitive. 
Alphabet, 137. 
Antecedent, assim. of rel. to 

case of anteced., 1 15 (v. 24). 
Antepenult, 2 {6). 
Aorist, 158, 159; use of, mean- 
ing of, 55, 56; 2 aor. diff. 



from I aor. in form and mean- 
ing, 57; aor. in κα, S8(note); 
Attic redupl. in aor., 118 
(v. 13); accent of 2 aor. 
part, and inf., 62; aor. pass., 
suffix of, and act. endings, 
68, 69; sense of aor., 61 
(mid.) and 205. 

Apostrophe in elision, 141. 

Article decl., 146; proclitic, 21 
(note); w. αύτό$, 29,30; w. 
adjs. to give positioti, 27. 

Augment, 15 and 183. 

Believing, verbs of, foil, by dat., 
25 (note 2). 

Cardinal numerals decl., 153. 

Cause expressed by dat., 217; 
by part., 72-73 (top). 

Classes of verbs, 184. 

Close vowels, 138 (3); stems 
of nouns ending in, 51 (bot- 
tom). 

Command expressed by imp., 
83• 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



231 



Comparative, see Degree. 

Comparison of adjs., 85; of 
advs., 86. 

Compound verbs, 32, 33; nega- 
tives, 214. 

Condition and conclusion (pro- 
tasis and apodosis) syntax 
of cond. sent., 206-208. 

Conjugation of ω -verbs, 160; 
of μι -verbs, 172. 

Consonants, division of, 138 
(top) ; euph. changes of, 49 
and 69 ; movable consonants, 
140; at end of words, 42 
(note) ; consonant stems of 
3d decl., 53. 

Contraction, 138, 139; of verbs 
in -αω, -εω, -οω, 1 68; in parts, 
of same verbs, 156. 

Coronis, 139. 

Crasis, 139. 

Dative, meaning of, 144; uses 

of, 216-217. 
Declension of nouns, 7 and 142; 

A-decl., 19-23; O-decl, 6-11; 

3d decl., 41-46 and 50-54; 

irreg. nouns of 3d decl. ,151; 

of adjs., 26-27; ^djs. of 3d 

decl., 85; of participles, 

154-157; of pronouns, 153- 

154• 
Demonstrative pronouns, 26, 

27. 
Dependent clauses, syntax of, 

206-310. 



Deponent verbs, 32. 
Diphthongs, 138 (4); contr. 
w. vowels, 139 (8) ; in aug. , 

15• 

Double consonants, 138 (2); 

negatives, 214. 
Doubt, questions of, exprs. by 

subjv., 205. 

Elision of vowels in prep., 141 

(mid.). 
Enclitics, 29 (note). 
Endings, pers. end. in verbs, 4, 

182; case endings in nouns, 

23, 42,45, 51. 
Exhortation exprs. by subjv., 

205. 
Extent, see Accusative. 

Feminine gender, 143. 

Final clauses, 206. 

Following, joining, approach- 
ing, verbs of, foil, by dat., 216. 

Fulness and want exprs. by 
gen., 215. 

Future, formation of, 47-49; in 
liquid verbs, 77-78; syntax 
of fut. w. ov μή, 214 (top). 

Gender, 143, 

Genitive case, meaning of, 144; 
accent of oxytones, 20; in 
3d decl-, 41 (bottom) and 51 ; 
syntax of, 214-216; prep, w., 
219; gen. abs., 74 (note 3). 

Grave accent, 9 (note). 



232 



ESSENTLi.,LS OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK. 



Hearing, verbs of, foil, by gen., 
II (note). 

Imperative, 82, 83; endings of, 

182; used in commands, 83. 
Imperfect tense, meaning of, 

14; aug. in, 15; secondary 

tense, 159; used in cond. 

sent., 208. 
Impersonal verbs, 90. 
Indicative, 158; in cond. sent., 

207-208; w. ώστε, 212; pers. 

end. of, 182; suffixes in, 183. 
Infinitives, 76; 2 aor. inf , 62; 

syntax of, 210-212; endings 

of, 183. 
Inflexion, 142. 
Irregular, nouns of 3d decl. , 

151 ; comparison, 153; verbs, 

189-193. 

Labial mutes, 138. 

Likeness, words of, foil, by dat., 

216. 
Liquids, 138; verb stems in, 

77-79• 

Manner, see Dat. ; exprs. by a 

part., 72 (2). 
Means, see dat. 
yut-verbs, 87-90; conjugation 

of, 172. 
Middle mutes, 138 (2). 
Middle voice, 157. 
Moods, 158. 
Motion toward exprs. by ace, 

218. 



Movable consonants, 140-141 

(top). 
Mutes, 138 ; euph. changes, 

49, 69, 117 (top); verb 

stems, 186. 

Nasals, 138 (2). 

Negatives, 213; see under ού 

and μή. 
Neuter, see Gender; neut. plur. 

w. sing, verb, 18 (note); 

neut. ace. of adjs. as advs., 

86 (mid.). 
Nominative case, 144; of 3d 

decl., 41. 
Number, 143. 
Numerals, 153. 

Objective case, 144. 
Open vowels, 138 (3). 
Optative, i8o-i8x. 
Oxytone, 20 (bottom). 

Palatal mutes, 138 (2); verb 

stems in, 186 (top). 
Participle, 70-73 and 37, 39. 
Passive voice, 12, 157; second 

pass., 69. 
Penult, 2 (bottom). 
Perfect tense, 65-67; primary 

tense, 159. 
Periphrastic forms, 1 1 2 (bottom). 
Personal endings, 4 and 182- 

183. 
Place exprs. by dat., 217 (bot- 
tom). 



ENGLISH INDEX. 



233 



Pluperfect tense, suffix in act., 

89- 

Predicate position of adjs., 64 

(3d. sent.). 
Prepositions, 219-222 ; suffer 

elision, 141 ; in compound 

verbs, 32. 
Present tense, 3, 4; primary, 

159• 

Primary tenses, 159. 

Principal parts of verbs, 159. 

Proclitics, 21 (note). 

Pronouns, pars, pron., 29; in- 
tensive pron., avTos, 29, 30; 
interrog. and indef. pron., 
75; rel. pron., 33; refl. pron., 
80, 81. 

Pronunciation, 137 and 138 (4). 

Punctuation, 142. 

Purpose, exprs. by final clauses, 
206. 

Quantity of a syllable, 2 (3, 4). 
Questions of doubt exprs. by 
subjv., 205. 

Recessive, see Accent. 
Reciprocal pronouns, 81. 
Reduplication in perf., 66; in 

2 aor., 118 (v. 13); in pres. 

system, 89-90; Attic redupl. 

in perf., 1 12 (v. i). 
Relative clauses, 209. 
Result exprs. by ώστε, 212. 
Rough breathing, 10 (<r), 140. 
Rough mutes, 138 (2). 



Semivowels, 138 (2). 
Smooth breathing, 140. 
Subjunctive, 35-36, 38-39; 

syntax of, 205-210. 
Subscript iota, 7 (a). 
Suffixes, 183. 
Superlative degree of adjs., 85 ; 

of advs., 86. 
Systems, tense, 159, 181-182. 

Tasting, verbs of, foil, by gen , 
215 (mid.). 

Tenses, primary and secondary, 
159; tenses of ind., 158; of 
subjv., 35; of inf., 76; of 
part., 71-72. 

Time, within which exprs. by 
gen., 214 (bottom); -when, 
dat., 217; how long, ace, 
218; use of part, to express 
time, 72. 

Touching, verbs of, foil, by 
gen., 215. 

Union and approach, words of, 
foil, by dat., 216. 

Voice, 157. 

Vowels, short and long, open 
and close, 138 (3); contract, 
of, 138 (4), 139. 

Vowel declensions, 142 (bot- 
tom). 

Vowel stems in verbs, 48 (mid.). 

Want, words of, foil, by gen., 215. 
Wish, exprs. by opt., 181. 



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form No. 513